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Bloodstream infection (BSI) occurred in 21 of 121 patients (17%) receiving venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation within the median time of 6 days after initiation (interquartile range, 4–19 days). Longer duration of arterial catheterization and more blood transfusions were independently associated with BSI, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes.
A systematic study on the effect of sputtering deposition parameters on material properties of Al doped ZnO (ZnO:Al) films prepared by an in-line rf magnetron sputtering and on surface morphology of the films after wet etching process was carried out. For application to silicon thin film solar cells as a front electrode, the as-deposited films were surface-textured by a dilute HCl solution to improve the light scattering properties such as haze and angle resolved distribution of scattered light on the film surfaces. The microstructure of as-deposited films is affected significantly by the working pressure and film compactness decreases with increasing working pressure from 1.5 mTorr to 10 mTorr. High quality ZnO:Al films with electrical resistivity of 4.25 × 10-4 Ω cm and optical transmittance of 80% in a visible range are obtained at low working pressure of 1.5 mTorr and substrate temperature of 100℃. Crater-like surface morphologies are observed on the textured ZnO:Al films after wet etching. The size and shape of craters are closely dependent on the microstructure and film compactness of as-deposited films. Haze values of the textured ZnO:Al films are improved in a whole wavelength of 300 – 1100 nm compared to commercial SnO2:F films (Asahi U type) and incident light on the textured films is scattered effectively with 30° angle.
We report on the insulator-charging-effects of poly-4-vinylphenol (PVP) gate dielectric on the reliabilities of pentacene thin-film transistors (TFTs). Our PVP films were prepared by spin coating and curing at various temperatures (155, 175, and 200 °C). Evaluated using Au/PVP/p+−Si structures, the dielectric strength of PVP films cured at 175 °C was superior to those of the other PVP films cured at different temperatures. Although saturation current and field mobility (∼0.13 cm2/Vs) obtained from a TFT with PVP film cured at 200 °C appeared higher than those (∼0.07 cm2/Vs) from the device with 175 °C-cured polymer film, the TFT prepared at 200 °C revealed a low on/off current ratio of less than 104 due to its high off-state current and also unreliable saturation behavior under repetitive gate voltage sweep. The unreliable behavior is due to the dielectric-charging caused by gate-electron-injection. We thus conclude that there are some optimal PVP-curing conditions to improve the reliability of pentacene TFT.
We present a comparative study of two metal-rich globular clusters in the Galactic bulge, NGC 6316 and NGC 6624, based on Washington CCD photometry. These two clusters are very close to the Galactic center. NGC 6624 is known to be dynamically in a post-core-collapse stage, while NGC 6316 is not. CMT1T2 CCD images of these clusters were obtained at the CTIO 0.9m telescope. We adopt the reddening values of E(B – V) = 0.61 for NGC 6316 and E(B – V) = 0.26 for NGC 6624 in this study.
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