To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder which frequently persists into adulthood. The primary goal of the current study was to (a) investigate attentional functions of stimulant medication-naïve adults with ADHD, and (b) investigate the effects of 6 weeks of methylphenidate treatment on these functions.
The study was a prospective, non-randomized, non-blinded, 6-week follow-up design with 42 stimulant medication-naïve adult patients with ADHD, and 42 age and parental education-matched healthy controls. Assessments included measures of visual attention, based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), which yields five precise measures of aspects of visual attention; general psychopathology; ADHD symptoms; dyslexia screening; and estimates of IQ.
At baseline, significant differences were found between patients and controls on three attentional parameters: visual short-term memory capacity, threshold of conscious perception, and to a lesser extent visual processing speed. Secondary analyses revealed no significant correlations between TVA parameter estimates and severity of ADHD symptomatology. At follow-up, significant improvements were found specifically for visual processing speed; this improvement had a large effect size, and remained when controlling for re-test effects, IQ, and dyslexia screen performance. There were no significant correlations between changes in visual processing speed and changes in ADHD symptomatology.
ADHD in adults may be associated with deficits in three distinct aspects of visual attention. Improvements after 6 weeks of medication are seen specifically in visual processing speed, which could represent an improvement in alertness. Clinical symptoms and visual attentional deficits may represent separate aspects of ADHD in adults.
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BP) are causes of severe disability worldwide and parents’ severe mental illness (SMI) is associated with childhood adversity, and socio-emotional and cognitive problems in children. Yet, how parental BP and SZ affect educational attainment in offspring is still unclear.
We included all children (N = 684.248) born and living in Denmark between 1986 and 1996 and their parents. Our follow-up lasted from 1986 until children's graduation in 2014. The main outcome variable was their school grades following their primary education. School outcomes were divided into four categories: not graduated, low-grade point average (GPA), medium GPA and high GPA. We then performed a multiple logistic regression with medium GPA as the reference category, with the children of parents without SZ or BP as the reference group.
Children of parents with SZ faced higher odds than their peers of not graduating primary education (OR 2.6), along with low GPA (odds ratios (OR) 1.6) and lower odds for a high GPA (OR 0.7). Moreover, it was the children of mothers rather than fathers with BP who had higher odds of not graduating primary education (OR 1.6). Lastly, child placement was associated with lower grades and lower graduation rates, and outcomes for children of parents with SMI were favorable compared with other children placed in care.
For children, parental SZ is associated with lower grades and lower chances for graduating primary education. In contrast, the children of parents with BP were indistinguishable from the reference group regarding school grades. This signifies that specificity of parental severe mental illness is important in relation to educational achievement of children.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.