de-bug: to eliminate errors in or malfunctions ofWebster's Dictionary
Chapters 2–11 have described the fundamental components of a good compiler: a front end, which does lexical analysis, parsing, construction of abstract syntax, type-checking, and translation to intermediate code; and a back end, which does instruction selection, dataflow analysis, and register allocation.
What lessons have we learned? We hope that the reader has learned about the algorithms used in different components of a compiler and the interfaces used to connect the components. But the authors have also learned quite a bit from the exercise.
Our goal was to describe a good compiler that is, to use Einstein's phrase, “as simple as possible – but no simpler.” we will now discuss the thorny issues that arose in designing the MiniJava compiler.
Structured l-values. Java (and MiniJava) have no record or array variables, as C, C++, and Pascal do. Instead, all object and array values are really just pointers to heap-allocated data. Implementing structured l-values requires some care but not too many new insights.
Tree intermediate representation. The Tree language has a fundamental flaw: It does not describe procedure entry and exit. These are handled by opaque procedures inside the Frame module that generate Tree code. This means that a program translated to Trees using, for example, the Pentium- Frame version of Frame will be different from the same program translated using SparcFrame – the Tree representation is not completely machine-independent.