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To evaluate the impact of a preschool-based nutrition education programme consisting of twelve ‘hands on’ nutrition education lessons delivered during the school year on young children’s willingness to consume fruits and vegetables.
Quasi-experimental, pre-post design including the collection of plate waste evaluation data at the start and end of the 2015–2016 school year within two groups: (1) randomly selected classrooms receiving the intervention and (2) within conveniently sampled preschool classrooms not receiving the intervention serving as a comparison group.
Centre-based preschool programmes serving low-income families in the Denver metro area.
Three- to five-year-old children in preschool classrooms participating in the intervention during the 2015–2016 school year (n 308) and children enrolled in comparison classrooms (n 215).
Repeated-measures logit models assessed whether increases in the odds of consuming small samples of fruits and vegetables between Time 1 (pre-intervention) and Time 2 (post-intervention) were different for children within the intervention group compared with the comparison group. Analyses showed that the change over time in consumption of the three vegetable samples varied by intervention status with greater change occurring among children within the intervention group (edamame: P = 0·001; cauliflower: P ≤ 0·0001 and red pepper: P ≤ 0·0001). Unlike vegetables, the change over time in consumption of the two fruit samples was not different between children within the intervention and comparison groups.
An experiential-learning nutrition education programme can positively influence eating behaviours of low-income preschoolers in a centre-based setting by increasing willingness to consume vegetables.
This study maps the general lines of semi-presidential research with regard to theory, topics and methods. It identifies research gaps and provides recommendations for future studies. The review includes a general screening of 327 publications covering the period 1970–2015, and a close reading of sixty-five selected publications. The findings suggest that the inconsistent use of regime type definitions has limited the possibilities for generalizations. The study tracks the influence of some seminal articles, as well as the recent trend of focusing on the role and powers of the president. The article calls for more studies beyond Europe, and suggests that the field would benefit from including Historical and Normative Institutionalism. Finally, it suggests the need for studies on public administration that are relevant to the functioning of semi-presidential government.
Abnormalities in reward learning in psychotic disorders have been proposed to be linked to dysregulated subcortical dopaminergic (DA) neurotransmission, which in turn is a suspected mechanism for predisposition to psychosis. We therefore explored the striatal dopaminergic modulation of reward processing and its behavioral correlates in individuals at familial risk for psychosis.
We performed a DA D2/3 receptor [18F]fallypride positron emission tomography scan during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task in 16 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with psychosis and 16 healthy volunteers, followed by a 6-day ecological momentary assessment study capturing reward-oriented behavior in the everyday life.
We detected significant reward-induced DA release in bilateral caudate, putamen and ventral striatum of both groups, with no group differences in its magnitude nor spatial extent. In both groups alike, greater extent of reward-induced DA release in all regions of interest was associated with better performance in the task, as well as in greater tendency to be engaged in reward-oriented behavior in the daily life.
These findings suggest intact striatal dopaminergic modulation of reinforcement learning and reward-oriented behavior in individuals with familial predisposition to psychosis. Furthermore, this study points towards a key link between striatal reward-related DA release and pursuit of ecologically relevant rewards.
Ductal spasm is a rare yet important complication of device occlusions of patent ductus arteriosus. Spasm may result in failure of the procedure, under-sizing of the device, or embolisation of the implanted device as the spasm resolves after the procedure. We describe a novel protocol that rapidly and completely reversed the spasm in eight prematurely born infants who experienced ductal spasm during cardiac catheterisations for patent ductus arteriosus occlusion.
In total, eight infants born between 25 and 34 weeks of gestation presented for transcatheter patent ductus arteriosus occlusion between 13 and 87 months of age. All eight patients experienced ductal spasm either immediately before, during, or soon after induction of anaesthesia or only after entering the ductus arteriosus with a catheter. After detection of the spasm, the anaesthetist, in each case, changed the mode of anaesthesia from inhaled sevoflurane to total intravenous anaesthesia with propofol, reduced the inhaled oxygen fraction to 21%, and initiated a continuous intravenous infusion of prostaglandin E1.
The first two steps (total intravenous anaesthesia and FiO2 0.21) resulted in only partial relaxation of the spasm. Complete relaxation was attained after intravenous prostaglandin E1 infusions of only 10–15 minutes’ duration. While maintaining this protocol, six ducti were successfully occluded and two were considered to be unsuitable for device occlusion and were referred for surgery.
Ductal spasm during transcatheter occlusion may be reliably resolved and the procedure safely completed by a simple anaesthetic protocol, including the continuous infusion of intravenous prostaglandin E1.
Endometriosis is a complex disease that affects 6–10% of women in their reproductive years and 20–50% of women with infertility. Genome-wide and candidate-gene association studies for endometriosis have identified 10 independent risk loci, and of these, nine (rs7521902, rs13394619, rs4141819, rs6542095, rs1519761, rs7739264, rs12700667, rs1537377, and rs10859871) are polymorphic in European populations. Here we investigate the replication of nine SNP loci in 998 laparoscopically and histologically confirmed endometriosis cases and 783 disease-free controls from Belgium. SNPs rs7521902, rs13394619, and rs6542095 show nominally significant (p < .05) associations with endometriosis, while the directions of effect for seven SNPs are consistent with the original reports. Association of rs6542095 at the IL1A locus with ‘All’ (p = .066) and ‘Grade_B’ (p = .01) endometriosis is noteworthy because this is the first successful replication in an independent population. Meta-analysis with the published results yields genome-wide significant evidence for rs7521902, rs13394619, rs6542095, rs12700667, rs7739264, and rs1537377. Notably, three coding variants in GREB1 (near rs13394619) and CDKN2B-AS1 (near rs1537377) also showed nominally significant associations with endometriosis. Overall, this study provides important replication in a uniquely characterized independent population, and indicates that the majority of the original genome-wide association findings are not due to chance alone.
We discuss the stellar halos of massive elliptical galaxies, as revealed by our ambitious integral-field spectroscopic survey MASSIVE. We show that metallicity drops smoothly as a function of radius out to ~ 2.5 Re, while the [α/Fe] abundance ratios stay flat. The stars in the outskirts likely formed rapidly (to explain the high ratio of alpha to Fe) but in a relatively shallow potential (to explain the low metallicities). This is consistent with expectations for a two-phase growth of massive galaxies, in which the second phase involves accretion of small satellites. We also show some preliminary study of the gas content of these most MASSIVE galaxies.
The prevalence and impact of long-term conditions continues to rise. Care planning for people with long-term conditions has been a policy priority for chronic disease management in a number of health-care systems. However, patients and providers appear unclear about the formulation and implementation of care planning. Further work in this area is therefore required to inform the development, implementation and evaluation of future care planning initiatives. We distinguish between ‘care planning’ (the process by which health-care professionals and patients discuss, agree and review an action plan to achieve the goals or behaviour change of most relevance and concern to the patient) and a ‘care plan’ (a written document recording the outcome of a care planning process). We propose a typology of care planning and care plans with three core dimensions: perspective (patient or professional), scope (a focus on goals or on behaviours) and networks (confined to the professional–patient dyad or extending to the entire care network). In addition, we draw on psychological models of mediation and moderation to outline potential mechanisms through which care planning and care plans may lead to improved outcomes for both patients and the wider health-care system. The proposed typology of care planning and care plans offered here, along with the model of the process by which care planning may influence outcomes, provide a useful framework for future policy developments and evaluations. Empirical work is required to explore the degree to which current care planning approaches and care plans can be described according to these dimensions, and the factors that determine which types of patients and professionals use which type of care plans.
In February 2013, the LEECH (LBTI Exozodi Exoplanet Common Hunt) survey began its 100-night campaign from the Large Binocular Telescope atop Mount Graham in Arizona. LEECH neatly complements other high-contrast planet imaging efforts by observing stars in L' band (3.8 microns) as opposed to the shorter wavelength near-infrared bands (1–2.3 microns). This part of the spectrum offers deeper mass sensitivity for intermediate age (several hundred Myr-old) systems, since their Jovian-mass planets radiate predominantly in the mid-infrared. In this proceedings, we present the science goals for LEECH and a preliminary contrast curve from some early data.
Vitamin D and folate are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and their association with colorectal cancer prognosis is under investigation. We assessed the levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), folate and vitamin B12 in an international pilot study in order to determine variability of these biomarkers based on geographical location. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured in 149 invasive, newly diagnosed colorectal cancer cases from Heidelberg (Germany), Seattle (WA, USA), and Tampa (FL, USA) and in ninety-one age- and sex-matched controls. Their associations with potential predictors were assessed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations differed by location. Other predictors were season for 25(OH)D3 and tumour stage (vitamin B12). Season-corrected average 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in Heidelberg (31·7 ng/ml; range 11·0–83·0 ng/ml) than in Seattle (23·3 ng/ml; range 4·0–80·0 ng/ml) and Tampa (21·1 ng/ml; range 4·6–51·6 ng/ml). In Heidelberg, a strong seasonal variation was observed. Folate (11·1 ng/ml) and vitamin B12 (395 pg/ml) concentrations in Heidelberg were lower than those in Seattle (25·3 ng/ml and 740 pg/ml, respectively) and Tampa (23·8 ng/ml and 522 pg/ml, respectively). Differences in plasma 25(OH)D3 and folate concentrations between Heidelberg and the US sites were observed, probably reflecting variation in outdoor activities and sun-avoidance behaviour during summer as well as in folic acid fortification and supplement use. Intra-site differences at each study location were greater than between-location variability, suggesting that individual health behaviours play a significant role. Nevertheless, the intra-site differences we observed may be due to chance because of the limited sample size. Our pilot study illustrates the value of an international cohort in studying colorectal cancer prognosis to discern geographical differences in a broad range of exposures.
Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a major public health problem in the United States. It has resulted in devastating consequences for people with this condition, including psychosocial and legal problems, in addition to contraction of infectious diseases such as HIV and hepatitis B and C. Furthermore, this disease can cause fatalities from drug overdoses and drug–drug interactions. OUD shatters families and destroys relationships. Effective treatment is crucial in order to curtail the consequences of this condition. The objective of this article is to provide a review of the pharmacotherapies currently being used to treat OUD.