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To determine the optimal antithrombotic agent choice, timing of initiation, dosing and duration of therapy for paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.
We used PubMed and EMBASE to systematically review the existing literature of clinical trials involving antithrombotics following cardiac surgery from 2000 to 2020 in children 0–18 years. Studies were assessed by two reviewers to ensure they met eligibility criteria.
We identified 10 studies in 1929 children across three medications classes: vitamin K antagonists, cyclooxygenase inhibitors and indirect thrombin inhibitors. Four studies were retrospective, five were prospective observational cohorts (one of which used historical controls) and one was a prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. All included were single-centre studies. Eight studies used surrogate biomarkers and two used clinical endpoints as the primary endpoint. There was substantive variability in response to antithrombotics in the immediate post-operative period. Studies of warfarin and aspirin showed that laboratory monitoring levels were frequently out of therapeutic range (variably defined), and findings were mixed on the association of these derangements with bleeding or thrombotic events. Heparin was found to be safe at low doses, but breakthrough thromboembolic events were common.
There are few paediatric prospective randomised clinical trials evaluating antithrombotic therapeutics post-cardiac surgery; most studies have been observational and seldom employed clinical endpoints. Standardised, validated endpoints and pragmatic trial designs may allow investigators to determine the optimal drug, timing of initiation, dosing and duration to improve outcomes by limiting post-operative morbidity and mortality related to bleeding or thrombotic events.
We examined whether preadmission history of depression is associated with less delirium/coma-free (DCF) days, worse 1-year depression severity and cognitive impairment.
Design and measurements:
A health proxy reported history of depression. Separate models examined the effect of preadmission history of depression on: (a) intensive care unit (ICU) course, measured as DCF days; (b) depression symptom severity at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II); and (c) cognitive performance at 3 and 12 months, measured by the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) global score.
Setting and participants:
Patients admitted to the medical/surgical ICU services were eligible.
Of 821 subjects eligible at enrollment, 261 (33%) had preadmission history of depression. After adjusting for covariates, preadmission history of depression was not associated with less DCF days (OR 0.78, 95% CI, 0.59–1.03 p = 0.077). A prior history of depression was associated with higher BDI-II scores at 3 and 12 months (3 months OR 2.15, 95% CI, 1.42–3.24 p = <0.001; 12 months OR 1.89, 95% CI, 1.24–2.87 p = 0.003). We did not observe an association between preadmission history of depression and cognitive performance at either 3 or 12 months (3 months beta coefficient −0.04, 95% CI, −2.70–2.62 p = 0.97; 12 months 1.5, 95% CI, −1.26–4.26 p = 0.28).
Patients with a depression history prior to ICU stay exhibit a greater severity of depressive symptoms in the year after hospitalization.
Hurricane evacuation is one of the strategies employed by emergency management and other agencies to reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hurricanes. However, factors associated with residents’ evacuation decision-making have been inconsistent. In this study, we conducted a statistical meta-analysis to identify factors associated with hurricane evacuation as well as moderators of the evacuation decision.
A systematic literature search identified 36 studies published between 1999 and 2018. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models, and heterogeneity across studies was checked using both Q and I2 statistics. Meta-regression methods were used to identify moderators. Publication bias was assessed using both visual (funnel plots) and statistical methods.
Mobile home residence, perception of risk, female sex, and Hispanic ethnicity were statistically associated with hurricane evacuation, while geographic region modified the relationship between Hispanic race and evacuation.
Agencies responsible for preparedness may utilize these findings to identify specific population sub-groups for hurricane evacuation communication and other interventions. Future studies should consider statistical interactions and explore opportunities for research translation to emergency officials.
Hope of ending the COVID-19 pandemic rests mainly on development of an effective vaccine. Availability of a vaccine is only part of the solution, though; Americans’ decisions to receive or forego the vaccine will determine its ultimate success. If too few people immunize, outbreaks will continue. Such outbreaks pose serious health risks to those who cannot vaccinate and translate into continued economic and health care costs, which those in higher-risk and disadvantaged groups disproportionately shoulder. Although a vaccine is not currently available, there are already troubling signs about Americans’ willingness to embrace one. The convergence of the anti-vaccination movement with the public's growing distrust of social institutions—including government, medicine, and the media—poses major challenges for COVID-19 immunization efforts.
Vaccine opposition was a growing social problem before COVID-19, and abundant misinformation, economic uncertainty, politicization of the pandemic, and anxiety about government overreach following pandemic-related restrictions have exacerbated existing anti-vaccination sentiment. Even during the earliest phases of the US COVID-19 crisis, unfounded reports circulated online suggesting the vaccine would be unsafe, an attempt at surveillance, and/or a dangerous yielding of personal freedom. The New York Times reported that by April 2020, the most widespread falsehood about the pandemic—viewed and shared millions of times in a matter of weeks—involved speculation that Bill Gates had helped create COVID-19 to profit from it and implant a surveillance device into Americans via an eventual vaccine. The viral “Plandemic” video circulating in May 2020 suggested that vaccinations Americans have received in the past make them more susceptible to COVID-19 by weakening their immune systems. In addition, some antivaccination groups see concerns about pandemic-related government restrictions as an opportunity to expand their movements and recruit adherents. During the first wave of the outbreak, anti-vaccination groups were behind some of the protests for ending stay-at-home orders and reopening the economy. These events demonstrate concerted efforts to influence Americans’ views of a COVID-19 vaccine before one is even available. They also suggest that not only is the pandemic affecting views on vaccination, but that these changing views will pose an important barrier to ending the crisis.
We are therefore saying that the work of expanding the habitual levels of life is the only valid art installation / the only exhibition / the only work of art that lives.
We are artists and we feel ourselves participating in the grand aspirations of all, presuming today, with South American love, the gliding of eyes over these lines.
Oh, South America.
In this way, together, we construct the beginning of the work: a recognition in our minds; erasing the trades: life as a creative act …
That is the art / the work / this is the work of art that we propose.
—¡Ay Sudamérica!, Colectivo Acciones de Arte, July 1981
At 11 a.m. on 11 September 1973, the Chilean Air Force bombed the presidential palace, La Moneda, as part of an attack that ended the presidency of Salvador Allende, suspended democracy, and initiated the repressive military dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet. Eight years later, on 12 July 1981, in the midst of dictatorship, six airplanes again flew over Santiago in military formation. This time, however, the planes did not drop bombs. Instead, they scattered four hundred thousand pamphlets with a text that urged Chileans to claim their space, thoughts, and lives by asserting the potential for artistry within all people. This art action, titled ¡Ay Sudamérica! (Oh, South America!) and orchestrated by the Colectivo Acciones de Arte (Art Actions Collective, or CADA), subversively re-created a central moment from the violent history of the military coup in order to disturb and articulate an alternative course for that history (Fig. 1). In doing so, CADA challenged the regime's conception of Chilean citizenship by calling for an expanded space of existence and invoking the possibility of an artistic and contestatory subjectivity within everyone.
Over the past several years there has been considerable interest in the relation between emotion dysregulation and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI), particularly given that rates of NSSI have been increasing and NSSI is a critical risk factor for suicidal behavior. To date, however, no synthesis of empirical findings exists.
The present study presents a comprehensive meta-analytic review of the literature on the association between NSSI and emotion dysregulation. A total of 48 publications, including 49 independent samples, were included in this analysis.
Overall, a significant association was found between emotion dysregulation and NSSI (pooled OR = 3.03 [95% CI = 2.56–3.59]). This association was reduced but remained significant (OR = 2.40 [95% CI = 2.01–2.86]) after adjustment for publication bias. Emotion dysregulation subscales most strongly associated with NSSI included limited access to regulation strategies, non-acceptance of emotional responses, impulse control difficulties, and difficulties engaging goal-directed behavior. Lack of emotional awareness/clarity and cognitive aspects of dysregulation yielded weaker, yet significant, positive associations with NSSI.
Findings support the notion that greater emotion dysregulation is associated with higher risk for NSSI among individuals across settings, regardless of age or sex. Furthermore, findings reveal facets of dysregulation that may have unique implications for NSSI. This meta-analysis highlights the importance of better understanding emotion dysregulation as a treatment target for preventing NSSI.
To assess the impact of a newly developed Central-Line Insertion Site Assessment (CLISA) score on the incidence of local inflammation or infection for CLABSI prevention.
A pre- and postintervention, quasi-experimental quality improvement study.
Setting and participants:
Adult inpatients with central venous catheters (CVCs) hospitalized in an intensive care unit or oncology ward at a large academic medical center.
We evaluated CLISA score impact on insertion site inflammation and infection (CLISA score of 2 or 3) incidence in the baseline period (June 2014–January 2015) and the intervention period (April 2015–October 2017) using interrupted times series and generalized linear mixed-effects multivariable analyses. These were run separately for days-to-line removal from identification of a CLISA score of 2 or 3. CLISA score interrater reliability and photo quiz results were evaluated.
Among 6,957 CVCs assessed 40,846 times, percentage of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 in the baseline and intervention periods decreased by 78.2% (from 22.0% to 4.7%), with a significant immediate decrease in the time-series analysis (P < .001). According to the multivariable regression, the intervention was associated with lower percentage of lines with a CLISA score of 2 or 3, after adjusting for age, gender, CVC body location, and hospital unit (odds ratio, 0.15; 95% confidence interval, 0.06–0.34; P < .001). According to the multivariate regression, days to removal of lines with CLISA score of 2 or 3 was 3.19 days faster after the intervention (P < .001). Also, line dwell time decreased 37.1% from a mean of 14 days (standard deviation [SD], 10.6) to 8.8 days (SD, 9.0) (P < .001). Device utilization ratios decreased 9% from 0.64 (SD, 0.08) to 0.58 (SD, 0.06) (P = .039).
The CLISA score creates a common language for assessing line infection risk and successfully promotes high compliance with best practices in timely line removal.
With increasing disaster risks from extreme weather, climate change, and emerging infectious diseases, the public health system plays a crucial role in community health protection. The disproportionate impacts of disaster risks demonstrate the need to consider ethics and values in public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) activities. Established PHEP frameworks from many countries do not integrate ethics into operational approaches.
To explore the ethical dimensions of all-hazards public health emergency preparedness in Canada.
A qualitative study design was employed to explore key questions relating to PHEP. Six focus groups, using the Structured Interview Matrix (SIM) format, were held across Canada with 130 experts from local, provincial, or federal levels, with an emphasis on local/regional public health. An inductive approach to content analysis was used to develop emergent themes, and iteratively examined based on the literature. This paper presents analyses examining the dimensions of ethics and values that emerged from the focus group discussions.
Thematic analysis resulted in the identification of four themes. The themes highlight the importance of proactive consideration of values in PHEP planning: challenges in balancing competing priorities, the need for transparency around decision-making, and consideration for how emergencies impact both individuals and communities.
Lack of consideration for the ethical dimensions of PHEP in operational frameworks can have important implications for communities. If decisions are made ad-hoc during an evolving emergency situation, the ethical implications may increase the risk for some populations, and lead to compromised trust in the PHEP system. The key findings from this study may be useful in influencing PHEP practice and policy to incorporate fairness and values at the core of PHEP to ensure readiness for emergencies with community health impacts.
The purpose of this study was to identify 1) the proportion of patients discharged from the emergency department (ED) with a diagnosis of concussion and return within 14 days, and 2) the characteristics that prompt a return.
A health records review was conducted on adult patients with a discharge diagnosis of a concussion who accessed care through Hamilton Health Sciences EDs and Urgent Care Centre in 2016. Subsequent data were collected from those who returned to the ED within 14 days. Clinical characteristics of returners were compared to those of non-returners.
Of the 389 patients included in the study, 38 (10%) returned within 14 days. Patients who sustained a concussion in a sport-related context or were referred to a specialized clinic were less likely to return (p = 0.03). Those who suffered an assault-related concussion were more likely to return (p = 0.01). Of those who did return, 42% received a CT scan with normal results, and 42% were given new discharge instructions.
Approximately 10% of patients diagnosed with a concussion in a Canadian hospital setting returned to the ED within 14 days of their index visit. Our study suggests the opportunity to reduce this burden to both the healthcare system and the patient through careful discharge instructions outlining anticipated symptoms following a concussion (specifically, headache) or referral to a concussion clinic.
Registered nurses (RNs) and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) provide the skilled component of nursing care in Canadian residential long-term care facilities, yet we know little about this important workforce. We surveyed 309 RNs and 448 LPNs from 91 nursing homes across Western Canada and report descriptively on their demographics and work and health-related outcomes. LPNs were significantly younger than RNs, worked more hours, and had less nursing experience. LPNs also experienced significantly more dementia-related responsive behaviours from residents compared to RNs. Younger LPNs and RNs reported significantly worse burnout (emotional exhaustion) and poorer mental health compared to older age groups. Significant differences in demographics and work- and health-related outcomes were also found within the LPN and RN samples by province, region, and owner-operator model. These findings can be used to inform important policy decisions and workplace planning to improve quality of work life for nurses in residential long-term care facilities.
Background: Scrupulosity is a common yet understudied presentation of obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that is characterized by obsessions and compulsions focused on religion. Despite the clinical relevance of scrupulosity to some presentations of OCD, little is known about the association between scrupulosity and symptom severity across religious groups. Aims: The present study examined the relationship between (a) religious affiliation and OCD symptoms, (b) religious affiliation and scrupulosity, and (c) scrupulosity and OCD symptoms across religious affiliations. Method: One-way ANOVAs, Pearson correlations and regression-based moderation analyses were conducted to evaluate these relationships in 180 treatment-seeking adults with OCD who completed measures of scrupulosity and OCD symptom severity. Results: Scrupulosity, but not OCD symptoms in general, differed across religious affiliations. Individuals who identified as Catholic reported the highest level of scrupulosity relative to individuals who identified as Protestant, Jewish or having no religion. Scrupulosity was associated with OCD symptom severity globally and across symptom dimensions, and the magnitude of these relationships differed by religious affiliation. Conclusions: Findings are discussed in terms of the dimensionality of scrupulosity, need for further assessment instruments, implications for assessment and intervention, and the consideration of religious identity in treatment.
The ventricular assist device is being increasingly used as a “bridge-to-transplant” option in children with heart failure who have failed medical management. Care for this medically complex population must be optimised, including through concomitant pharmacotherapy. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic alterations affecting pharmacotherapy are increasingly discovered in children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, another form of mechanical circulatory support. Similarities between extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and ventricular assist devices support the hypothesis that similar alterations may exist in ventricular assist device-supported patients. We conducted a literature review to assess the current data available on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics in children with ventricular assist devices. We found two adult and no paediatric pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies in ventricular assist device-supported patients. While mechanisms may be partially extrapolated from children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, dedicated investigation of the paediatric ventricular assist device population is crucial given the inherent differences between the two forms of mechanical circulatory support, and pathophysiology that is unique to these patients. Commonly used drugs such as anticoagulants and antibiotics have narrow therapeutic windows with devastating consequences if under-dosed or over-dosed. Clinical studies are urgently needed to improve outcomes and maximise the potential of ventricular assist devices in this vulnerable population.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Background: Delirium is a well described form of acute brain organ dysfunction characterized by decreased or increased movement, changes in attention and concentration as well as perceptual disturbances (i.e., hallucinations) and delusions. Catatonia, a neuropsychiatric syndrome traditionally described in patients with severe psychiatric illness, can present as phenotypically similar to delirium and is characterized by increased, decreased and/or abnormal movements, staring, rigidity, and mutism. Delirium and catatonia can co-occur in the setting of medical illness, but no studies have explored this relationship by age. Our objective was to assess whether advancing age and the presence of catatonia are associated with delirium. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Methods: We prospectively enrolled critically ill patients at a single institution who were on a ventilator or in shock and evaluated them daily for delirium using the Confusion Assessment for the ICU and for catatonia using the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale. Measures of association (OR) were assessed with a simple logistic regression model with catatonia as the independent variable and delirium as the dependent variable. Effect measure modification by age was assessed using a Likelihood ratio test. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Results: We enrolled 136 medical and surgical critically ill patients with 452 matched (concomitant) delirium and catatonia assessments. Median age was 59 years (IQR: 52–68). In our cohort of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had delirium only, 4 (3%) had catatonia only, 42 (31%) had both delirium and catatonia, and 32 (24%) had neither. Age was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (i.e., increasing age associated with decreased risk for delirium) (p=0.04) after adjusting for catatonia severity. Catatonia was significantly associated with prevalent delirium (p<0.0001) after adjusting for age. Peak delirium risk was for patients aged 55 years with 3 or more catatonic signs, who had 53.4 times the odds of delirium (95% CI: 16.06, 176.75) than those with no catatonic signs. Patients 70 years and older with 3 or more catatonia features had half this risk. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Conclusions: Catatonia is significantly associated with prevalent delirium even after controlling for age. These data support an inverted U-shape risk of delirium after adjusting for catatonia. This relationship and its clinical ramifications need to be examined in a larger sample, including patients with dementia. Additionally, we need to assess which acute brain syndrome (delirium or catatonia) develops first.
To assess relationships between mothers’ feeding practices (food as a reward, food for emotion regulation, modelling of healthy eating) and mothers’ willingness to purchase child-marketed foods and fruits/vegetables (F&V) requested by their children during grocery co-shopping.
Cross-sectional. Mothers completed an online survey that included questions about feeding practices and willingness (i.e. intentions) to purchase child-requested foods during grocery co-shopping. Feeding practices scores were dichotomized at the median. Foods were grouped as nutrient-poor or nutrient-dense (F&V) based on national nutrition guidelines. Regression models compared mothers with above-the-median v. at-or-below-the-median feeding practices scores on their willingness to purchase child-requested food groupings, adjusting for demographic covariates.
Participants completed an online survey generated at a public university in the USA.
Mothers (n 318) of 2- to 7-year-old children.
Mothers who scored above-the-median on using food as a reward were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·60, P<0·0001), mothers who scored above-the-median on use of food for emotion regulation were more willing to purchase nutrient-poor foods (β=0·29, P<0·0031) and mothers who scored above-the-median on modelling of healthy eating were more willing to purchase nutrient-dense foods (β=0·22, P<0·001) than were mothers with at-or-below-the-median scores, adjusting for demographic covariates.
Mothers who reported using food to control children’s behaviour were more willing to purchase child-requested, nutrient-poor foods. Parental feeding practices may facilitate or limit children’s foods requested in grocery stores. Parent–child food consumer behaviours should be investigated as a route that may contribute to children’s eating patterns.
Young children are particularly vulnerable to malnutrition as nutrition transition progresses. The present study aimed to document the prevalence, coexistence and correlates of nutritional status (stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia) in Samoan children aged 24–59 months.
A cross-sectional community-based survey. Height and weight were used to determine prevalence of stunting (height-for-age Z-score <−2) and overweight/obesity (BMI-for-age Z-score >+2) based on WHO growth standards. Anaemia was determined using an AimStrip Hemoglobin test system (Hb <110 g/l).
Ten villages on the Samoan island of Upolu.
Mother–child pairs (n 305) recruited using convenience sampling.
Moderate or severe stunting was apparent in 20·3 % of children, 16·1 % were overweight/obese and 34·1 % were anaemic. Among the overweight/obese children, 28·6 % were also stunted and 42·9 % anaemic, indicating dual burden of malnutrition. Stunting was significantly less likely among girls (OR=0·41; 95 % CI 0·21, 0·79, P<0·01) than boys. Overweight/obesity was associated with higher family socio-economic status and decreased sugar intake (OR per 10 g/d=0·89, 95 % CI 0·80, 0·99, P=0·032). The odds of anaemia decreased with age and anaemia was more likely in children with an anaemic mother (OR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·22, 3·98, P=0·007). No child, maternal or household characteristic was associated with more than one of the nutritional status outcomes, highlighting the need for condition-specific interventions in this age group.
The observed prevalences of stunting, overweight/obesity and anaemia suggest that it is critical to invest in nutrition and develop health programmes targeting early childhood growth and development in Samoa.