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Anxiety is the most prevalent psychological disorder among youth, and even following treatment, it confers risk for anxiety relapse and the development of depression. Anxiety disorders are associated with heightened response to negative affective stimuli in the brain networks that underlie emotion processing. One factor that can attenuate the symptoms of anxiety and depression in high-risk youth is parental warmth. The current study investigates whether parental warmth helps to protect against future anxiety and depressive symptoms in adolescents with histories of anxiety and whether neural functioning in the brain regions that are implicated in emotion processing and regulation can account for this link. Following treatment for anxiety disorder (Time 1), 30 adolescents (M age = 11.58, SD = 1.26) reported on maternal warmth, and 2 years later (Time 2) they participated in a functional neuroimaging task where they listened to prerecorded criticism and neutral statements from a parent. Higher maternal warmth predicted lower neural activation during criticism, compared with the response during neutral statements, in the left amygdala, bilateral insula, subgenual anterior cingulate (sgACC), right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. Maternal warmth was associated with adolescents’ anxiety and depressive symptoms due to the indirect effects of sgACC activation, suggesting that parenting may attenuate risk for internalizing through its effects on brain function.
Because of advances in treatment over the past 30 years, the number of older people living with HIV is growing. This is important for Indigenous Peoples in Canada, given their continuing over-representation in HIV diagnoses. However, little is known about the experiences of older, HIV-positive Indigenous Peoples. Taking a strength-based approach, this research explored how older Indigenous men with HIV conceptualize successful aging. Research was conducted in partnership with the Canadian Aboriginal AIDS Network. First Nations, Inuit, and Métis men, ranging in age from 43 to 63 years who had been HIV positive for 10–29 years participated in sharing circles and interviews. An open analytic approach was used to explore the content of transcripts, and codes were collaboratively developed through an inductive and iterative process. From our analysis of commonalities across Indigenous groups, we offer our insights on the application of the successful aging model to Indigenous men aging with HIV.
Negotiating peace in a democratic context where public opinion matters and an international context eschewing the past norm of forgive-and-forget to end conflicts poses new dilemmas for peace negotiators. With both domestic constituents and international law demanding retributive justice for the most egregious human rights abuses, how are negotiators to induce combatants to lay down arms and end a conflict? We examine these dilemmas in the Colombia peace talks of 2012–2016 – a case of a protracted conflict in a democracy with relatively strong rule of law institutions; well-organized civil society, and especially human rights organizations; and a vibrant political dynamic involving both the multi-party Congress and public opinion in the approval and implementation of the negotiated agreement.
One generation's experience of childhood maltreatment is associated with that of the next. However, whether this intergenerational transmission is specific to distinct forms of maltreatment and what factors may contribute to its continuity remains unclear. Borderline personality pathology is predicted by childhood maltreatment and characterized by features (e.g., dysregulated emotion, relationship instability, impulsivity, and inconsistent appraisals of others) that may contribute to its propagation. Among 364 older adults and 573 of their adult children (total n = 937), self-reported exposure to distinct forms of childhood maltreatment (i.e., emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire) showed homotypic and heterotypic associations across generations with little evidence that latent factors unique to specific forms of maltreatment show generational continuity. General nonspecific indices of childhood maltreatment showed evidence of intergenerational transmission after accounting for demographic factors and parent socioeconomic status (b = 0.126, p = 9.21 × 10−4). This continuity was partially mediated by parental borderline personality pathology (assessed longitudinally through a variety of measures and sources, indirect effect: b = 0.031, 95% confidence interval [0.003, 0.060]). The intergenerational continuity of childhood maltreatment may largely represent general risk for nonspecific maltreatment that may, in part, be propagated by borderline personality pathology and/or shared risk factors.
Maternal mental health during pregnancy and postpartum predicts later emotional and behavioural problems in children. Even though most perinatal mental health problems begin before pregnancy, the consequences of preconception maternal mental health for children's early emotional development have not been prospectively studied.
We used data from two prospective Australian intergenerational cohorts, with 756 women assessed repeatedly for mental health problems before pregnancy between age 13 and 29 years, and during pregnancy and at 1 year postpartum for 1231 subsequent pregnancies. Offspring infant emotional reactivity, an early indicator of differential sensitivity denoting increased risk of emotional problems under adversity, was assessed at 1 year postpartum.
Thirty-seven percent of infants born to mothers with persistent preconception mental health problems were categorised as high in emotional reactivity, compared to 23% born to mothers without preconception history (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.1). Ante- and postnatal maternal depressive symptoms were similarly associated with infant emotional reactivity, but these perinatal associations reduced somewhat after adjustment for prior exposure. Causal mediation analysis further showed that 88% of the preconception risk was a direct effect, not mediated by perinatal exposure.
Maternal preconception mental health problems predict infant emotional reactivity, independently of maternal perinatal mental health; while associations between perinatal depressive symptoms and infant reactivity are partially explained by prior exposure. Findings suggest that processes shaping early vulnerability for later mental disorders arise well before conception. There is an emerging case for expanding developmental theories and trialling preventive interventions in the years before pregnancy.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Scholars and faculty in the Clinical and Translational Science (CTS) track of our institution’s biomedical science graduate school reported a lack of satisfaction with our learning management system (LMS); specifically, they reported frustration with the amount of time spent locating learning assignment guidelines, course readings, and submission portals. As a result, we created a new master template to address their concerns. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A new template was created within the LMS based on scholar and faculty feedback. Surveys and other tools have been used to determine student and faculty satisfaction as well as measure secondary outcomes of time spent in the online learning space. Some key changes include a redesigned menu and submission portal. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: There was an increase in satisfaction with the new LMS template. Next steps include systematically rolling out the new template, with continued solicitation of feedback from all stakeholders. All courses in the CTS track will be converted to the new template by summer quarter 2020. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: The strengths of this project include the multidisciplinary team-based approach to improving course satisfaction and usability, as well as the use of innovative technologies. Additionally, the analytical capabilities of the LMS will be maximized in the new template, which was a shortcoming of the previously available template.
Bees (Hymenoptera: Apoidea, Apiformes) are taxonomically and ecologically diverse, with a wide range of social complexity, nesting preferences, floral associations, and biogeographic restrictions. A Canadian bee checklist, greatly assisted by the gene-assisted approach of DNA barcoding, is nearing completion. Previous evaluation of bee diversity in Canada, assisted by DNA barcoding, was restricted to Nova Scotia, which contains about 25% of the bee species in the country. Here, we summarise efforts to date to build a comprehensive DNA barcode library supporting bee taxonomic studies in Canada, consisting of more than 12 500 barcode-compliant sequences yielding 811 distinct barcode index numbers (BINs). This appears to represent ~95% of the 856 bee species presently recorded from Canada, but comparison with known morphological species in each genus shows that some genera are still under-sampled or may contain cryptic taxa, with much taxonomic work still to be done on bees in Canada. This is particularly true within the taxonomically difficult genera Andrena Fabricius (Andrenidae), Hylaeus Fabricius (Colletidae), Melissodes Latreille (Apidae), Nomada Scopoli (Apidae), Osmia Panzer (Megachilidae), and Sphecodes Latreille (Halictidae). DNA analysis will likely be a key asset in resolving bee taxonomic issues in Canada in the future, and to date has even assisted studies of well-known bee taxa. Here we present summaries of our results, and discuss the use of DNA barcoding to assist future taxonomic work, faunal lists, and ecological studies.
Background: Speech pathologists work to optimise communication and reduce the emotional and social impact of communication disability in patients with aphasia but need evidence-based interventions to effectively do so.
Objective: This phase 1 study aims to evaluate an Australian speech-pathology-led intervention called the Aphasia Action, Success, and Knowledge (Aphasia ASK) programme for patients with aphasia early post stroke.
Methods: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was utilised. The intervention included up to six individual face-to-face sessions with seven participants with aphasia and their nominated family member(s). Quantitative outcomes assessing mood, quality of life, and communication confidence were conducted for the participants with aphasia. Follow-up interviews were conducted with both participants with aphasia and family members to determine their perceptions of the programme.
Results: Significant improvements were found in communication confidence and mood after treatment and the gains were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Participants with aphasia and their family members reported a good level of satisfaction with the programme.
Conclusions: Findings suggest the Aphasia ASK programme is a suitable intervention with positive initial outcomes for people with aphasia. A larger scale evaluation with a greater variety of participants is now required. An Australian cluster randomised control trial is planned.
Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, co-infects its triatomine vector with its sister species Trypanosoma rangeli, which shares 60% of its antigens with T. cruzi. Additionally, T. rangeli has been observed to be pathogenic in some of its vector species. Although T. cruzi–T. rangeli co-infections are common, their effect on the vector has rarely been investigated. Therefore, we measured the fitness (survival and reproduction) of triatomine species Rhodnius prolixus infected with just T. cruzi, just T. rangeli, or both T. cruzi and T. rangeli. We found that survival (as estimated by survival probability and hazard ratios) was significantly different between treatments, with the T. cruzi treatment group having lower survival than the co-infected treatment. Reproduction and total fitness estimates in the T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatments were significantly lower than in the co-infected and control groups. The T. cruzi and T. rangeli treatment group fitness estimates were not significantly different from each other. Additionally, co-infected insects appeared to tolerate higher doses of parasites than insects with single-species infections. Our results suggest that T. cruzi–T. rangeli co-infection could ameliorate negative effects of single infections of either parasite on R. prolixus and potentially help it to tolerate higher parasite doses.
To describe the current state of academic emergency medicine (EM) funding in Canada and develop recommendations to grow and establish sustainable funding.
A panel of eight leaders from different EM academic units was assembled. Using mixed methods (including a literature review, sharing of professional experiences, a survey of current EM academic heads, and data previously collected from an environmental scan), 10 recommendations were drafted and presented at an academic symposium. Attendee feedback was incorporated, and the second set of draft recommendations was further distributed to the Canadian Association Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Academic Section for additional comments before being finalized.
Recommendations were developed around the funding challenges identified and solutions developed by academic EM university-based units across Canada. A strategic plan was seen as integral to achieving strong funding of an EM unit, especially when it aligned with departmental and institutional priorities. A business plan, although occasionally overlooked, was deemed an important component for planning and sustaining the academic mission. A number of recommendations surrounding philanthropy consisted of creating partnerships with existing foundations and engaging multiple stakeholders and communities. Synergy between academic and clinical EM departments was also viewed as an opportunity to ensure integration of common missions. Education and networking for current and future leaders were also viewed as invaluable to ensure that opportunities are optimized through strong leadership development and shared experiences to further the EM academic missions across the country.
These recommendations were designed to improve the financial circumstances for many Canadian EM units. There is a considerable wealth of resources that can contribute to financial stability for an academic unit, and an annual networking meeting and continuing education on these issues will facilitate more rapid implementation of these recommendations.
The past two decades have seen a significant advancement in the detection, classification and understanding of exoplanets and binary star systems. The vast majority of these systems consist of stars on the main sequence or on the giant branch, leading to a dearth of knowledge of properties at early times (<50 Myr). Only one transiting planet candidate and a dozen eclipsing binaries are known among pre-main sequence objects, yet these are the systems that can provide the best constraints on stellar and planetary formation models. We have recently completed a photometric survey of 3 young (<50 Myr), nearby (D<150 pc) moving groups with a small-aperture instrument, nicknamed “AggieCam”. We detected 7 candidate Hot Jupiters and over 200 likely pre-main sequence binaries, which are now being followed up photometrically and spectroscopically.
Emergency medical services (EMS) programs, which provide an alternative to traditional EMS dispatch or transport to the emergency department (ED), are becoming widely implemented. This scoping review identified and catalogued all outcomes used to measure such alternative EMS programs.
Broad systematized bibliographic and grey literature searches were conducted.
Inclusion criteria were 911 callers/EMS patients, reported on alternatives to traditional EMS dispatch OR traditional EMS transport to the ED, and reported an outcome measure.
The reports were categorized as either alternative to dispatch or to EMS transport, and outcome measures were categorized and described.
The bibliographic search retrieved 13,215 records, of which 34 articles met the inclusion criteria, with an additional 10 added from reference list hand-searching (n=44 included). In the grey literature search, 31 websites were identified, from which four met criteria and were retrieved (n=4 included). Fifteen reports (16 studies) described alternatives to EMS dispatch, and 33 reports described alternatives to EMS transport. The most common outcomes reported in the alternatives to EMS dispatch reports were service utilization and decision accuracy. Twenty-four different specific outcomes were reported. The most common outcomes reported in the alternatives to EMS transport reports were service utilization and safety, and 50 different specific outcomes were reported.
Numerous outcome measures were identified in reports of alternative EMS programs, which were catalogued and described. Researchers and program leaders should achieve consensus on uniform outcome measures, to allow benchmarking and improve comparison across programs.
To identify important risk factors for recurrent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) to assist clinicians in identifying high-risk patients for continued surveillance and follow-up.
In this retrospective cohort study, we examined patients with MRSA bacteremia at 122 Veterans Affairs medical facilities from January 1, 2003, through December 31, 2010. Recurrent MRSA bacteremia was identified by a positive blood culture result from 2 to 180 days after index hospitalization discharge. Subset analyses were performed to evaluate risk factors for early-onset (2–60 days after discharge) and late-onset (61–180 days after discharge) recurrence. Risk factors were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
Of 18,425 patients, 1,159 (6.3%) had recurrent MRSA bacteremia. The median time to recurrence was 63 days. Longer duration of index bacteremia, increased severity of illness, receipt of only vancomycin, community-acquired infection, and several comorbidities were risk factors for recurrence. Congestive heart failure, hypertension, and rheumatoid arthritis/collagen disease were risk factors for early-onset but not late-onset recurrence. Geographic region and cardiac arrhythmias were risk factors for late-onset but not early-onset recurrence.
Risk factors for recurrent MRSA bacteremia included comorbidities, severity of illness, duration of bacteremia, and receipt of only vancomycin. Awareness of risk factors may be important at patient discharge for implementation of quality improvement initiatives including surveillance, follow-up, and education for high-risk patients.
The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) enables the direct conversion of the chemical energy stored in liquid methanol fuel to electrical energy, with water and carbon dioxide as by-products. Compared to the more well-known hydrogen fueled polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (H2-PEMFCs), DMFCs present several intriguing advantages as well as a number of challenges.
This review examines the technological, environmental, and policy aspects of direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). The DMFC enables the direct conversion of the chemical energy stored in liquid methanol fuel to electrical energy, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts. Compared to the more well-known hydrogen fueled PEMFCs, DMFCs present several intriguing advantages as well as a number of challenges. Factors impeding DMFC commercialization include the typically lower efficiency and power density, as well as the higher cost of DMFCs compared to H2-based fuel cells. Because of these issues, it is likely that DMFC technology will first be commercialized for small portable power applications (e.g., the displacement of batteries in consumer electronic applications), where the shorter product lifetimes (∼1–2 yrs for a battery versus 8–15 yrs for a car) and the much higher price points (∼$10/W for a laptop battery vs. ∼$0.05/W for a vehicle engine) provide a more attractive entry point. While such applications are not likely to significantly impact the global energy sustainability picture, they provide an important initial market for fuel cell technology. As such, in this review, we provide an overview of recent research and the challenges to the development of DMFCs for both the portable (shorter-term) and transport (longer-term) sectors.
The United States Supreme Court recently employed foreign legal sources to interpret U.S. law, provoking widespread political and legal controversy. Scholars have yet to examine systematically the conditions under which justices cite foreign law, however. Applying theoretical approaches from international relations and judicial politics scholarship, we search every Supreme Court opinion between 1953 and 2009 for references to foreign law. Justices strategically reference foreign law to prop up their most controversial opinions. They also borrow law from countries whose domestic political institutions are viewed as legitimate; and, surprisingly, conservatives are as likely as liberals to cite foreign law. These findings add important information to the discussion over citing foreign law, and highlight how geopolitical context influences domestic legal policy.
Traditionally, conservation programmes assume that local peoples’ support for parks depends on receiving material benefits from foreign exchange, tourism, development and employment. However, in the case of forest parks in Africa, where annual visitation can be small, local support may instead result from ecosystem services. Kibale National Park, a forest park in Uganda, demonstrates that people appreciate parks in ways that are seldom cited nor explored. Public perceptions of benefits accrued from Kibale were explored using two different sampling techniques: a community census and a geographic sample. In both surveys, over 50% of respondents perceived benefits provided by Kibale National Park, and over 90% of those who perceived benefits identified ecosystem services, whereas material benefits were cited less frequently. Multimodel selection on a suite of general linear models for the two different sampling methods provided a comparison of factors influencing perceptions of ecosystem services. Perceptions of Park benefits were influenced by geography, household and respondent characteristics, and perception of negative impacts from the Park. Perceived ecosystem benefits played an important role in the way the Park was viewed and valued locally. Parks have considerable impacts on neighbouring communities, and their long-term political and economic sustainability depends on managing these relationships well. Since local people have the most to gain or lose by conserving neighbouring parks, analyses that incorporate the perceptions of local people are essential to management and sustainability of park landscapes.
To summarize the approaches used to manage exposure of patients to inadequately sterilized neurosurgical instruments contaminated as a result of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD).
Information on past CJD exposure incidents reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was aggregated and summarized. In addition, inactivation studies were reviewed, and data from selected publications were provided for reference.
Nineteen incidents of patient exposure to potentially CJD-contaminated instruments were reported to the CDC, including 17 that involved intracranial procedures and 2 that involved ophthalmologic procedures. In more than 50% of incidents, the neurosurgical procedures were performed for diagnostic work up of the index patients. At least 12 of the hospitals had multiple neurosurgical sets, and the CJD-contaminated instruments could not be identified in 11 of 19 hospitals. In 12 of 15 hospitals with neurosurgical incidents, a decision was made to notify patients of their potential exposure.
Neurosurgical instruments used for treatment of patients with suspected or diagnosed CJD or patients whose diagnosis is unclear should be promptly identified and sterilized using recommended CJD decontamination protocols. Inability to trace instruments complicates appropriate management of exposure incidents. The feasibility of instituting instrument tracking procedures should be considered.