To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As the COVID-19 pandemic took hold in the USA in early 2020, it became clear that knowledge of the prevalence of antibodies to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) among asymptomatic individuals could inform public health policy decisions and provide insight into the impact of the infection on vulnerable populations. Two Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Hubs and the National Institutes of Health (NIH) set forth to conduct a national seroprevalence survey to assess the infection’s rate of spread. This partnership was able to quickly design and launch the project by leveraging established research capacities, prior experiences in large-scale, multisite studies and a highly skilled workforce of CTSA hubs and unique experimental capabilities at the NIH to conduct a diverse prospective, longitudinal observational cohort of 11,382 participants who provided biospecimens and participant-reported health and behavior data. The study was completed in 16 months and benefitted from transdisciplinary teamwork, information technology innovations, multimodal communication strategies, and scientific partnership for rigor in design and analytic methods. The lessons learned by the rapid implementation and dissemination of this national study is valuable in guiding future multisite projects as well as preparation for other public health emergencies and pandemics.
Shakespeare games are emerging as legitimate objects of study and pedagogy, but a survey of such games reveals that the marriage between “Shakespeare” and “game” is conceptually problematic, offering relatively narrow understandings of what a play by Shakespeare might be. We briefly identify two broad trends in digital pedagogical Shakespeare games before discussing how their reliance on the act of “play” and their favoring of Shakespeare as a textual ontology ignores the complexity of theatrical performance. We identify three overlooked complexities, the first giving rise to the other two: the audience's contribution to theatre’s ontology, the different kinds of work that actors and spectators undertake in performance, and the primacy of collaborative ontogenesis in theatre over artifactual ontology.
Keywords: Shakespeare; game design; digital pedagogy; ontology; ontogenesis
The Game's Afoot
Gina Bloom has recently observed that since 2008, “the field of Shakespeare gaming has exploded.” Shakespeare games are emerging as legitimate objects of study in our field at a time when the broader field of game studies has firmly established game design as a legitimate form of pedagogy. Although popular Shakespeare games—even those with pedagogical goals—still largely aim merely to capitalize on the cultural currency of the Bard, Shakespeare scholars are increasingly thinking of games—in particular digital games—as opportunities to engage pedagogically with students and theatre audiences about Shakespeare's works for the theatre. To date, we are aware of two broad trends in digital pedagogical Shakespeare games designed by Shakespeare scholars, each taking a distinct approach to scaffolding deep engagements with Shakespeare's play-texts. The first—which we think of as gamified textual analyses—aims to develop students’ analytical skills by setting completion conditions that can only be achieved through detailed engagement with the language, plot, characters, and/or themes of Shakespeare's plays; E. B. Hunter's Something Wicked and Katherine Acheson et al.'s Who Killed Romeo and Juliet? take this approach. The second category—staging games, pioneered in digital form by Larry Friedlander in 1991 with TheatreGame—positions players as theatre-makers in variations on sandbox games that simulate the decision-making processes involved in staging a play; Staging Shakespeare, Places, Please!: Hamlet Edition, and Play the Knave are all examples.
Over the last year, COVID-19 has emerged as a highly transmissible and lethal infection. As we address this global pandemic, its disproportionate impact on Black, Indigenous, and Latinx communities has served to further magnify the health inequities in access and treatment that persist in our communities. These sobering realities should serve as the impetus for reexamination of the root causes of inequities in our health system. An increased commitment to strategic partnerships between academic and nonacademic health systems, industry, local communities, and policy-makers may serve as the foundation. Here, we examine the impact of the recent COVID-19 pandemic on health care inequities and propose a strategic roadmap for integration of clinical and translational research into our understanding of health inequities.
Optical tracking systems typically trade off between astrometric precision and field of view. In this work, we showcase a networked approach to optical tracking using very wide field-of-view imagers that have relatively low astrometric precision on the scheduled OSIRIS-REx slingshot manoeuvre around Earth on 22 Sep 2017. As part of a trajectory designed to get OSIRIS-REx to NEO 101955 Bennu, this flyby event was viewed from 13 remote sensors spread across Australia and New Zealand to promote triangulatable observations. Each observatory in this portable network was constructed to be as lightweight and portable as possible, with hardware based off the successful design of the Desert Fireball Network. Over a 4-h collection window, we gathered 15 439 images of the night sky in the predicted direction of the OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Using a specially developed streak detection and orbit determination data pipeline, we detected 2 090 line-of-sight observations. Our fitted orbit was determined to be within about 10 km of orbital telemetry along the observed 109 262 km length of OSIRIS-REx trajectory, and thus demonstrating the impressive capability of a networked approach to Space Surveillance and Tracking.
Previous research in clinical, community, and school settings has demonstrated positive outcomes for the Secret Agent Society (SAS) social skills training program. This is designed to help children on the autism spectrum become more aware of emotions in themselves and others and to ‘problem-solve’ complex social scenarios. Parents play a key role in the implementation of the SAS program, attending information and support sessions with other parents and providing supervision, rewards, and feedback as their children complete weekly ‘home mission’ assignments. Drawing on data from a school-based evaluation of the SAS program, we examined whether parents’ engagement with these elements of the intervention was linked to the quality of their children’s participation and performance. Sixty-eight 8–14-year-olds (M age = 10.7) with a diagnosis of autism participated in the program. The findings indicated that ratings of parental engagement were positively correlated with children’s competence in completing home missions and with the quality of their contribution during group teaching sessions. However, there was a less consistent relationship between parental engagement and measures of children’s social and emotional skill gains over the course of the program.
A medical information commons (MIC) is a networked data environment utilized for research and clinical applications. At three deliberations across the U.S., we engaged 75 adults in two-day facilitated discussions on the ethical and social issues inherent to sharing data with an MIC. Deliberants made recommendations regarding opt-in consent, transparent data policies, public representation on MIC governing boards, and strict data security and privacy protection. Community engagement is critical to earning the public's trust.
To develop consensus recommendations for training future clinician educators (CEs) in emergency medicine (EM).
A panel of EM education leaders was assembled from across Canada and met regularly by teleconference over the course of 1 year. Recommendations for CE training were drafted based on the panel’s experience, a literature review, and a survey of current and past EM education leaders in Canada. Feedback was sought from attendees at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) annual academic symposium. Recommendations were distributed to the society’s Academic Section for further feedback and updated by a consensus of the expert panel.
Recommendations were categorized for one of three audiences: 1) Future CEs; 2) Academic departments and divisions (AD&D) that support training to fulfill their education leadership goals; and 3) The CAEP Academic Section. Advanced medical education training is recommended for any emergency physician or resident who pursues an education leadership role. Individuals should seek out mentorship in making decisions about career opportunities and training options. AD&D should regularly perform a needs assessment of their future CE needs and identify and encourage potential individuals who fulfill education leadership roles. AD&D should develop training opportunities at their institution, provide support to complete this training, and advocate for the recognition of education scholarship in their institutional promotions process. The CAEP Academic Section should support mentorship of future CEs on a national scale.
These recommendations serve as a framework for training and supporting the next generation of Canadian EM medical educators.
Jointed goatgrass is a troublesome weed in winter wheat in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Wheat and jointed goatgrass (JGG) can cross and produce hybrids in the field that can serve as a potential bridge for gene migration between the two species. To determine the potential for gene movement it is important to be able to identify hybrids in the field. To study the effect of wheat genotype on hybrid phenotype, reciprocal crosses were made between JGG and two common wheat cultivars: ‘Brundage 96’, ‘Hubbard’, a common-type advanced breeding line: ‘87–52814A’, and a club wheat cultivar: ‘Rhode’. Hybrids and parents were measured for plant height, spike length, flag leaf length, flag leaf width, and number of spikelets. Reciprocal effects were nonsignificant for all characteristics measured, indicating that hybrid morphology was not affected by the direction of the cross. Hybrids were different from their wheat parents for spike length, plant height, and flag leaf width. Hybrids produced from each of the wheat parents were uniform in phenotypic characters. Spikes were intermediate in circumference (size) from crosses between JGG and common wheat lines; however, club wheat × JGG crosses resulted in spikes that were more similar to common wheat. Spike size and flag leaf width for all hybrids also were intermediate between their parents. Hybrids differed in spike size and awn characteristics because of unique characteristics of the wheat parent. Based on these results, it should be possible to identify hybrids in the field accurately, regardless of the wheat parent or direction of the cross unless the parent is a club wheat.
To assess the risk of gene movement between winter wheat and jointed goatgrass, information about the reproductive development of jointed goatgrass, winter wheat, and related hybrid plants is required. Seedlings from five jointed goatgrass populations, winter wheat, spring wheat, and jointed goatgrass by wheat reciprocal hybrid plants were exposed to 4, 7, or 10 C temperatures for 0, 2, 4, 5, 6, 6.5, 7, or 8 wk. Vernalized seedlings were transferred to a greenhouse set to 30/18 C day/night temperatures and 16-h photoperiod. Growth stages on all plants were recorded twice a week. All spring wheat and spring wheat related hybrid plants reproduced (as measured by the first reproductive node) in the absence of vernalization. Plants of jointed goatgrass population A-R, winter wheat, and winter wheat related hybrids were unlikely to reproduce in the absence of vernalization. Plants of jointed goatgrass populations B-W, G-S, E-S, and F-W reproduced in the absence of vernalization, and the likelihood that these plants would reproduce was different from all other plants. Plants that entered their reproductive phases together were not in synchronous development at anthesis. Plants in these studies differentially passed through the reproductive phases between the first reproductive node and anthesis. Our results demonstrate that variation in vernalization response exists among several jointed goatgrass populations, and reveal that the reproductive behavior of vernalized jointed goatgrass plants at anthesis is delayed compared to vernalized winter wheat and related hybrid plants. Hybrid plants produced between spring wheat and jointed goatgrass were vernalization insensitive. We hypothesize that hybridization between wheat and jointed goatgrass occurs as a result of cross-pollination between the younger reproductive tillers of jointed goatgrass and older reproductive tillers of wheat. The use of an early maturing wheat cultivar may exploit the difference in reproductive development and reduce the risk of hybrid production.
The spontaneous flow of genes from wheat to jointed goatgrass is of great concern to breeders intending to release herbicide-resistant wheat. The objectives of this research were to study how genes could flow from wheat to jointed goatgrass through crossing and backcrossing between these two species and, based on this knowledge, to propose possible ways to minimize the chance of gene flow between them. Results showed that the wheat × jointed goatgrass hybrid can only serve as a female parent to produce the BC1 generation. The BC1 generation was found to have 1.8% male fertility and 4.4% female fertility, indicating that it could serve as either the male or female parent to produce a BC2 generation. The fertility of the resultant BC2 generation further increased. The average male, female, and self-fertility was 8.9, 18.0, and 6.9%, respectively. After the BC2 generation, the backcross progeny has three possible ways to reproduce: to pollinate jointed goatgrass, to be pollinated by jointed goatgrass, or to pollinate itself. Restoration of the chromosome number of jointed goatgrass continues as the BC2 generation is selfed, but some plants can contain an alien chromosome over generations. The possible ways to reduce the chance of gene flow between these two species are (1) prevent the production of hybrids, (2) prevent the production of the BC1 generation, and (3) put a herbicide-resistant gene on the A- or B-genome of wheat.
Field experiments were conducted to determine if seeds would be produced on Triticum aestivum by Aegilops cylindrica hybrids in the field and, if it were, to determine the viability of the seeds produced. One, five, or 10 hybrids were planted into varying proportions of A. cylindrica and T. aestivum in a replacement series design. Percent seed set ranged from 0 to 5.5% in 1996 and from 0 to 9.2% in 1997. Seeds were set in all treatments. The average seed set was 2.3% in 1996 and 3.8% in 1997. No differences in seed set were found among treatments. The seeds produced were separated according to seed condition, either full or shriveled, and tested for germination. The germination of the seeds produced on the hybrids was not significantly different between years. The average germination for full seeds was 94% in both years and 79 and 84% for shriveled seeds in 1995 and 1996, respectively. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the rate of self-fertility of the BC1 generation and to identify morphological characteristics that could be used to identify the probable pollen donor parent and to predict the occurrence of seed set. In 1997 4.1% and in 1998 2.1% of BC1 plants set seeds. The average seed set was 0.3% in 1997 and 0.06% in 1998. It was not possible, using any morphological characteristic measured, to determine the identity of the parent serving as the pollen donor in the previous generation or to predict the occurrence of seed set in the BC1 generation. This is the first reported study to show that hybrids between T. aestivum and A. cylindrica have the ability, although limited, to backcross under field conditions and set seeds. Furthermore, the seeds produced are viable and will germinate and produce plants. With the millions of hectares of T. aestivum infested with A. cylindrica, even the limited ability to backcross is of concern for the movement of a herbicide-resistance gene.
We previously reported an association between 5HTTLPR genotype and
outcome following cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) in child anxiety
(Cohort 1). Children homozygous for the low-expression short-allele
showed more positive outcomes. Other similar studies have produced mixed
results, with most reporting no association between genotype and CBT
To replicate the association between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcome in child
anxiety from the Genes for Treatment study (GxT Cohort 2,
n = 829).
Logistic and linear mixed effects models were used to examine the
relationship between 5HTTLPR and CBT outcomes. Mega-analyses using both
cohorts were performed.
There was no significant effect of 5HTTLPR on CBT outcomes in Cohort 2.
Mega-analyses identified a significant association between 5HTTLPR and
remission from all anxiety disorders at follow-up (odds ratio 0.45,
P = 0.014), but not primary anxiety disorder
The association between 5HTTLPR genotype and CBT outcome did not
replicate. Short-allele homozygotes showed more positive treatment
outcomes, but with small, non-significant effects. Future studies would
benefit from utilising whole genome approaches and large, homogenous