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Flexible copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) solar cells on lightweight substrates can deliver high specific powers. Flexible lightweight CIGS solar cells are also primary candidates for building-integrated panels. In all applications, CIGS cells can greatly benefit from the application of broadband and wide-angle AR coating technology. The AR coatings can significantly improve the transmittance of light over the entire CIGS absorption band spectrum. Increased short-circuit current has been observed after integrating AR coated films onto baseline solar panels. NREL’s System Advisor Model (SAM) has predicted up to 14% higher annual power output on AR integrated vertical or building-integrated panels. The combination of lightweight flexible substrates and advanced device designs employing nanostructured optical coatings together have the potential to achieve flexible CIGS modules with enhanced efficiencies and specific power.
The impact of nanostructured broadband antireflection (AR) coatings on solar panel performance has been projected for a broad range of panel tilt angles at various locations. AR coated films have been integrated on test panels and the short-circuit current has been measured for the entire range of panel tilts. The integration of the AR coatings resulted in an increase in short-circuit current of the panels by eliminating front sheet reflection loss for a broad spectrum of light and wide angle of light incidence. The short-circuit current enhancement is 5% for normal light incidence and approximately 20% for off-angle light incidence. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) System Advisor Model (SAM) predicts that this AR coating can yield at least 6.5% improvement in solar panel annual power output. The greatest enhancement, approximately 14%, is predicted for vertical panels. The AR coating’s contributions to vertical mount panels and building-integrated solar panels are significant. This nanostructured broadband AR coating thus has the potential to lower the cost per watt of photovoltaic solar energy.
Oblique-angle deposition is used to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO) optical coatings with a porous, columnar nanostructure. Nanostructured ITO layers with a reduced refractive index are then incorporated into antireflection coating (ARC) structures with a step-graded refractive index design, enabling increased transmittance into an underlying semiconductor over a wide range of wavelengths of interest for photovoltaic applications. Low-refractive index nanostructured ITO coatings can also be combined with metal films to form an omnidirectional reflector (ODR) structure capable of achieving high internal reflectivity over a broad spectrum of wavelengths and a wide range of angles. Such conductive high-performance ODR structures on the back surface of a thin-film solar cell can potentially increase both the current and voltage output by scattering unabsorbed and emitted photons back into the active region of the device.
This study compared monosyllabic word recognition in quiet, noise, and noise with reverberation for 15 monolingual American English speakers and 12 Spanish–English bilinguals who had learned English prior to 6 years of age and spoke English without a noticeable foreign accent. Significantly poorer word recognition scores were obtained for the bilingual listeners than for the monolingual listeners under conditions of noise and noise with reverberation, but not in quiet. Although bilinguals with little or no foreign accent in their second language are often assumed by their peers, or their clinicians in the case of hearing loss, to be identical in perceptual abilities to monolinguals, the present data suggest that they may have greater difficulty in recognizing words in noisy or reverberant listening environments.
Jennifer L. Edwards, Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA,
Hillery A. Harvey, Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA,
Michael A. Apicella, Department of Microbiology, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242, USA
Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the gonococcus, is the causative agent of gonorrhea, one of the oldest human diseases on record. Biblical references to gonorrhea in Leviticus (15:1–15:19) showed that the infectious nature of the disease was recognized even at that time. Probably, the best description of gonorrhea in a man in the preantibiotic era can be found in the writings of Boswell, who described in detail each of his 19 episodes of infection (Ober, 1970). These descriptions also allude to the asymptomatic nature of the disease in women, as many of the contacts from whom he acquired the infection were without symptoms of disease. Today, it is estimated that greater than 1 million cases of N. gonorrhoeae infection occur in the United States, and 60 million cases are reported annually worldwide. Hence, N. gonorrhoeae infection remains prevalent in the general population, despite the fact that antibiotic therapy is readily available. The high incidence of this disease remains a major concern in lower socioeconomic groups in the United States; however, the highest incidence of infection and of complications resulting from infection occur in developing countries. In underdeveloped nations it has been shown that patients with gonorrhea are at much higher risk for contracting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is proposed that this increased susceptibility to HIV infection results from the inflammatory response generated by infecting gonococci with the subsequent disruption and shedding of the mucosal epithelium.
Tourette Syndrome (TS) in children is associated with various neurobehavioral disorders including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Children with TS and ADHD show some difficulties with neuropsychological tasks, but we do not know if children with TS alone have neuropsychological deficits. To assess specific cognitive differences among children with TS and/or ADHD, we administered a battery of neuropsychological tests, including 10 tasks related to executive function (EF), to 10 children with TS-only, 48 with ADHD-only, and 32 with TS+ADHD. Children in all groups could not efficiently produce output on a timed continuous performance task [Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA) mean reaction time and reaction time variability]. Children with TS-only appeared to have fewer EF impairments and significantly higher perceptual organization scores than children with TS+ADHD or ADHD-only. These findings suggest that deficiencies in choice reaction time and consistency of timed responses are common to all three groups, but children with TS-only have relatively less EF impairment than children with TS+ADHD or ADHD-only. (JINS, 1995, 1, 511–516.)
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