To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Pain following surgery for cardiac disease is ubiquitous, and optimal management is important. Despite this, there is large practice variation. To address this, the Paediatric Acute Care Cardiology Collaborative undertook the effort to create this clinical practice guideline.
A panel of experts consisting of paediatric cardiologists, advanced practice practitioners, pharmacists, a paediatric cardiothoracic surgeon, and a paediatric cardiac anaesthesiologist was convened. The literature was searched for relevant articles and Collaborative sites submitted centre-specific protocols for postoperative pain management. Using the modified Delphi technique, recommendations were generated and put through iterative Delphi rounds to achieve consensus
60 recommendations achieved consensus and are included in this guideline. They address guideline use, pain assessment, general considerations, preoperative considerations, intraoperative considerations, regional anaesthesia, opioids, opioid-sparing, non-opioid medications, non-pharmaceutical pain management, and discharge considerations.
Postoperative pain among children following cardiac surgery is currently an area of significant practice variability despite a large body of literature and the presence of centre-specific protocols. Central to the recommendations included in this guideline is the concept that ideal pain management begins with preoperative counselling and continues through to patient discharge. Overall, the quality of evidence supporting recommendations is low. There is ongoing need for research in this area, particularly in paediatric populations.
Several guidelines currently recommend acute diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) for the detection of ischemia in transient ischemic attack (TIA). However, DWI hyperintensities resolve early and only 30%–50% with clinically defined TIA show acute DWI positivity. A recent meta-analysis reported an unexplained 7-fold variation in DWI positivity in TIA across studies, concluding that DWI does not provide a consistent basis for defining ischemia. Intracortical excitability, measured using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), has previously been shown to be altered after TIA and associated with ABCD2 scores; however, whether altered cortical excitability is associated with clinical and DWI-based definitions of TIA remains unclear.
Individuals with TIA symptoms (N = 23; mean age = 61 ± 12) were prospectively recruited and underwent DWI and paired-pulse TMS. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate associations between TMS-derived excitability thresholds, and clinical TIA diagnosis, and imaging-based evidence of cerebral ischemia (DWI positivity). Area under the curve (AUC) analyses was used to compare the discriminability of TMS-derived thresholds and clinical TIA diagnoses.
Thresholds for intracortical inhibition in the TIA-unaffected hemisphere were significantly associated with the clinical diagnosis of TIA. No associations between TMS-derived thresholds and DWI positivity were observed. TMS thresholds showed low-moderate discriminability and values differed by age (65+) and sex.
In this small sample, TMS-derived markers of intracortical excitability were associated with clinical TIA diagnoses but not DWI positivity. Our results provide preliminary evidence for the potential discriminative utility of TMS for the diagnosis of TIA and highlight the need for future work in larger cohorts.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.