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This article presents the use of flexible metal foam substrates for the growth of III-nitride nanowire light emitters to tackle the inherent limitations of thin-film light emitting diodes as well as fabrication and application issues of traditional substrates. A dense packing of gallium nitride nanowires were grown on a nickel foam substrate. The nanowires grew predominantly along the a-plane direction, normal to the local surface of the nickel foam. Strong luminescence was observed from undoped GaN and InGaN quantum well light emitting diode nanowires.
GaN films were doped with Eu to a concentration of ∼0.12 at. % during growth at 800°C by molecular beam epitaxy, with the Eu cell temperature held constant at 470°C. All samples were post-annealed at 675°C. The films exhibited strong photoluminescence (PL) in the red (622 nm) whose absolute intensity was a function of the Ga flux during growth, which ranged from 3-5.4×10−7 Torr. The maximum PL intensity was obtained at a Ga flux of 3.6×10−7 Torr. The samples showed room temperature ferromagnetism with saturation magnetization of ∼0.1-0.45 emu/cm3, consistent with past reports where the Eu was found to be predominantly occupying substitutional Ga sites. There was an inverse correlation between the PL intensity and the saturation magnetization in the films. X-ray diffraction showed the presence of EuGa phases under all of our growth conditions but these cannot account for the observed magnetic properties.
Epitaxial graphene (EG) grown on the carbon-face of SiC has been shown to exhibit higher carrier mobilities in comparison to other growth techniques amenable to wafer-scale graphene fabrication. The transfer of large area (>mm2) graphene films to substrates amenable for specific applications is desirable. We demonstrate the dry transfer of EG from the C-face of 4H-SiC onto SiO2, GaN and Al2O3 substrates via two approaches using either 1) thermal release tape or 2) a spin-on, chemically-etchable dielectric. Van der Pauw devices fabricated from C-face EG transferred to SiO2 gave similar mobility values and up to three fold reductions in carrier density in comparison to devices fabricated on as-grown material.
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