To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
This paper proposes that the United Nation's sustainable development goals (SDGs) and associated targets form an effective framework for determining real-world research impact. Existing bibliometrics that assess the quality of academic work are usually quantitative and self-referential, reducing the focus on real-world issues. The same measurements are often adopted by funding bodies, pressuring researchers to increase compliance, and further reducing integrity and real-world impact. A series of world cafés were conducted, collecting data on how researchers, their institutions, and network organisations can contribute to, and measure research aligned with the SDGs and targets. The results showed that participants were generally positive towards using the SDGs and targets to measure impact and quality of academic research. Suggestions to assist greater adoption of the SDGs and targets as a measure of impact included: aligning governmental and institutional funding; changing key performance indicators; increasing cross-disciplinary work; aligning mission/vision statements; and legitimising SDG-focused projects at conferences.
This article aims to temper the fetishization of the events of 1989–1990. It explores how the historical framing of the Federal Republic transforms when 1989–1990 becomes peripheral, and argues that the force of 1989–1990 as a mythic ending relies on two interpretive paradigms: on a temporal sensibility based on a belief in the progressive development of politics and society, and on a conception of identity and difference understood in terms of a Cold War global order. The article highlights how these twentieth-century paradigms guided the historiography that made 1989–1990 the climax of the history of the Federal Republic. The precondition of any new master narrative for the Federal Republic is the recognition that these paradigms have lost their purchase. Viewed instead through the new temporal sensibility of presentism and the lateral power politics of globalization, 1989–1990 assumes a new position amid longer arcs of historical change that do not hinge on the fate of the Berlin Wall.
Dieser Aufsatz zielt darauf ab die Fetischisierung der Ereignisse von 1989–1990 abzuschwächen. In diesem Sinne wird untersucht, wie sich der historische Rahmen der Bundesrepublik verändert, wenn 1989–1990 an die Peripherie gerückt wird; dabei wird argumentiert, dass die Kraft von 1989–1990 als ein mythisches Ende auf zwei interpretativen Paradigmen beruht, nämlich zum ersten auf einer temporalen Sensibilität, die auf einem Glauben an eine fortschrittliche Entwicklung von Politik und Gesellschaft beruht, und zum zweiten auf einem Konzept von Identität und Unterschiedlichkeit, das auf der globalen Ordnung des Kalten Krieges fußt. Der Aufsatz hebt hervor, wie diese Paradigmen des 20. Jahrhunderts die Historiographie bestimmten, die 1989–1990 zum Höhepunkt der Geschichte der Bundesrepublik gestaltete. Die Vorbedingung eines jeden neuen Masternarrativs für die Bundesrepublik ist somit die Erkenntnis, dass diese Paradigmen ihre Kraft verloren haben. Wenn man 1989–1990 dagegen vom Blickwinkel der neuen temporalen Sensibilität des Presentismus und der lateralen Machtpolitik der Globalisierung betrachtet, nimmt es eine neue Position ein: eine Position inmitten längerer historischer Veränderungsprozessen, die nicht vom Schicksal der Berliner Mauer abhängen.
Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of air stable cobalt and nickel complexes based on tridentate enaminones N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylethyldiamine (Htfb-dmeda) and N,N-(4,4,4-trifluorobut-1-en-3-on)-dimethylpropyldiamine (Htfb-dmpda) successfully produced metallic cobalt and nickel thin films. Detailed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies on the binding interaction of the first precursor monolayer with the surface functional groups elucidated the chemisorption behavior of the new precursor systems. A reactive remote hydrogen plasma was used as the co-reactant to activate the precursor decomposition yielding metal hydroxide intermediates. Subsequent hydrogen plasma etching of as-deposited films resulted in phase-pure metallic films through a recrystallization process, verified by surface and sub-surface XPS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses revealed pinhole-free films, with low surface roughness (0.2 ± 0.06 nm root mean square, RMS) for both, cobalt and nickel thin films. Herein, the competitive role of hydrogen as etchant and reactant was demonstrated as prolonged plasma exposure time periods resulted in the formation of metal hydrides. This is mostly due to the catalytic dissociation of molecular hydrogen on transition metal surfaces, which already occurs upon low energy input.
This study uses simulation over real and artificial networks to compare the eventual adoption outcomes of network interventions, operationalized as idealized contagion processes with different sets of seeds. While the performance depends on the details of both the network and behaviour adoption mechanisms, interventions with seeds that are central to the network are more effective than random selection in the majority of simulations, with faster or more complete adoption throughout the network. These results provide additional theoretical justification for utilizing relevant network information in the design of public health behavior interventions.
The current project seeks to integrate literatures on personality risk for antisocial behavior (ASB) by examining how callous–unemotional traits relate to (a) the development of disinhibited traits and (b) the association between disinhibited traits and ASB. In Study 1, using a nationally representative sample of youth (N > 7,000), we examined whether conduct problems and lack of guilt assessed during ages 4–10 years predicted levels of and changes in disinhibited traits over the course of adolescence, and moderated associations between these traits and ASB. High levels of childhood conduct problems were associated with higher levels of impulsivity, sensation seeking, and ASB in early adolescence, whereas lack of guilt was associated with lower levels of sensation seeking. Neither conduct problems nor lack of guilt significantly predicted changes in impulsivity or sensation seeking, and associations among changes in sensation seeking, impulsivity, and ASB were also consistent across levels of conduct problems and lack of guilt. In Study 2, using a cross-sectional sample of adolescents (N = 970), we tested whether callous–unemotional traits moderated associations between disinhibited traits and ASB. Consistent with the results of Study 1, associations between disinhibited personality and ASB were consistent across a continuous range of callous–unemotional traits.
To develop consensus recommendations for training future clinician educators (CEs) in emergency medicine (EM).
A panel of EM education leaders was assembled from across Canada and met regularly by teleconference over the course of 1 year. Recommendations for CE training were drafted based on the panel’s experience, a literature review, and a survey of current and past EM education leaders in Canada. Feedback was sought from attendees at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) annual academic symposium. Recommendations were distributed to the society’s Academic Section for further feedback and updated by a consensus of the expert panel.
Recommendations were categorized for one of three audiences: 1) Future CEs; 2) Academic departments and divisions (AD&D) that support training to fulfill their education leadership goals; and 3) The CAEP Academic Section. Advanced medical education training is recommended for any emergency physician or resident who pursues an education leadership role. Individuals should seek out mentorship in making decisions about career opportunities and training options. AD&D should regularly perform a needs assessment of their future CE needs and identify and encourage potential individuals who fulfill education leadership roles. AD&D should develop training opportunities at their institution, provide support to complete this training, and advocate for the recognition of education scholarship in their institutional promotions process. The CAEP Academic Section should support mentorship of future CEs on a national scale.
These recommendations serve as a framework for training and supporting the next generation of Canadian EM medical educators.
We analyzed birth order differences in means and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) in monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins from infancy to old age. The data were derived from the international CODATwins database. The total number of height and BMI measures from 0.5 to 79.5 years of age was 397,466. As expected, first-born twins had greater birth weight than second-born twins. With respect to height, first-born twins were slightly taller than second-born twins in childhood. After adjusting the results for birth weight, the birth order differences decreased and were no longer statistically significant. First-born twins had greater BMI than the second-born twins over childhood and adolescence. After adjusting the results for birth weight, birth order was still associated with BMI until 12 years of age. No interaction effect between birth order and zygosity was found. Only limited evidence was found that birth order influenced variances of height or BMI. The results were similar among boys and girls and also in MZ and DZ twins. Overall, the differences in height and BMI between first- and second-born twins were modest even in early childhood, while adjustment for birth weight reduced the birth order differences but did not remove them for BMI.
Records at the Endulen Hospital in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA), Tanzania, reveal that soil-transmitted helminth infections and protozoa are consistently in the top ten diagnoses for Maasai pastoralists, indicating a significant public health concern. Nevertheless, Maasai pastoralist adaptations to life in close proximity to livestock and to unreliable access to water raise important questions about experiences of, and resiliency to, parasitic infections. Though these infections are particularly prevalent among youth in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), a focus on resiliency highlights local capacity to recover from and prevent illness. For instance, how is human parasitism perceived and experienced among communities displaying behaviours that studies have associated with transmission of diarrhoeal diseases, such as open defecation? Among these communities, how is parasitism seen to impact the health and development of children? And, what resources are available to endure or mitigate this heavy disease burden among affected communities? This study draws on formative research carried out in May 2014 in anticipation of an innovative school-based and youth-driven water, sanitation and hygiene education intervention rolled out in two boarding schools in the NCA in subsequent months. The initiative is grounded in a One Health approach to health promotion, drawing on partnerships in medicine, public health and veterinary medicine to appreciate the unique interactions between humans, animals and the environment that shape well-being among pastoralist communities. Qualitative data generated through group discussions with secondary school youth (n=60), Maasai teachers (n=6) and a women’s group (n=8) in the NCA convey existing knowledge of the prevalence, prevention and treatment of human parasitism. An underlying principle of the larger initiative is to engage youth as creative agents of change in developing and sustaining locally relevant health promotion strategies. Findings highlight practical knowledge around certain ‘neglected tropical diseases’, namely helminths, among pastoralist communities in the NCA, in turn feeding into the development of the science fair and related interventions.
To characterize the current state of Canadian emergency medicine (EM) resident research and develop recommendations to promote excellence in this area.
We performed a systematic review of MEDLINE, Embase, and ERIC using search terms relevant to EM resident research. We conducted an online survey of EM residency program directors from the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (RCPSC) and College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC). An expert panel reviewed these data, presented recommendations at the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians 2014 Academic Symposium, and refined them based on feedback received.
Of 654 potentially relevant citations, 35 articles were included. These were categorized into four themes: 1) expectations and requirements, 2) training and assessment, 3) infrastructure and support, and 4) dissemination. We received 31 responses from all 31 RCPSC-EM and CFPC-EM programs. The majority of EM programs reported requiring a resident scholarly project; however, we found wide-ranging expectations for the type of resident research performed and how results were disseminated, as well as the degree of completion expected. Although 93% of RCPSC-EM programs reported providing formal training on how to conduct research, only 53% of CFPC-EM programs reported doing so. Almost all programs (94%) reported having infrastructure in place to support resident research, but the nature of support was highly variable. Finally, there was marked variability regarding the number of resident-published abstracts and manuscripts.
Based on the literature, our national survey, and discussions with stakeholders, we offer 14 recommendations encompassing goals, expectations, training, assessment, infrastructure, and dissemination in order to improve Canadian EM resident research.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.