To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Student engagement is a relatively new construct that describes concepts as varied as classroom behaviors, emotional reactions, motivational beliefs, self-regulatory processes, metacognitive strategies, school belonging and interactions with instructional materials. This chapter reviews a variety of methods to measure student engagement including self-report surveys, teacher ratings, interviews, administrative data, observations, experience sampling methods, and real-time measures. The authors outline the strengths and limitations of each method. Next, we present two examples from our own research on approaches to measuring engagement. The goal of these cases is to illustrate how we have addressed some of the challenges with measurement, as well as showing the importance of choosing a measurement technique that aligns with the research questions. First, we describe the results of a qualitative study to develop a new subject-specific measure of engagement. Next, information on the predictive validity of an observational measure to assess engagement at the class-level is presented. The chapter concludes with a discussion of measurement limitations, future directions, and implications for policy and practice.
Jacquelynne Eccles, School of Education, University of California, Irvine; Jennifer A. Fredricks, Department of Human Development and the Holleran Center for Community Action and Public Policy, Connecticut College; Pieter Baay, Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Utrecht University, NL
Correspondence concerning this chapter should be addressed to Jacquelynne S. Eccles, School of Education, University of California, Irvine, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Sandra D. Simpkins, Assistant Professor for the Department of Family and Human Development, Arizona State University,
Jennifer A. Fredricks, Assistant Professor in Human Development, Connecticut College,
Pamela E. Davis-Kean, Assistant Research Professor of the Institute for Social Research and the Institute for Research on Women and Gender,
Jacquelynne S. Eccles, Wilbert McKeachie Collegiate Professor of Psychology, Women's Studies, and Education, University of Michigan
There is growing evidence that participating in extracurricular and out-of-school activities during adolescence is associated with both short- and long-term indicators of positive development (e.g., Eccles & Barber, 1999; Eccles & Templeton, 2002; Mahoney, 2000). Yet, few researchers have questioned whether these relations are solely the result of activity participation during adolescence or if they are the culmination of a process that began in middle childhood. Middle childhood is marked by many physical, cognitive, social, and contextual changes. It is during this time that children develop multiple cognitive skills, such as reasoning and the ability to reflect on one's accomplishments, experiences, and aspirations. Children's social worlds broaden as they begin to participate in organized out-of-school activities. The changes in children's abilities and skills coupled with the new contexts in which children develop suggest that middle childhood is an important period for the development of skills and beliefs through participation in out-of-school activities. Although entry into adolescence and adulthood brings new abilities and interests, some of the benefits of adolescent participation may not be realized unless the groundwork is laid in middle childhood.
There is little evidence available concerning developmental hypotheses about the reasons or mechanisms for these associations. Longitudinal studies over extended periods of time afford an opportunity to examine positive and negative consequences of participation based on activity characteristics as well as other potential influences such as parental encouragement or child talent.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.