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It is well-known that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with changes in the dopaminergic system. However, the relationship between central dopaminergic tone and the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal during receipt of rewards and penalties in the corticostriatal pathway in adults with ADHD is unclear.
Single-photon emission computed tomography with [99mTC]TRODAT-1 was used to assess striatal dopamine transporter (DAT) availability. Event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on subjects performing the Iowa Gambling Test.
DAT availability was found to be associated with the BOLD response, which was a covariate of monetary loss, in the medial prefrontal cortex (r = 0.55, P = .03), right ventral striatum (r = 0.69, P = .003), and right orbital frontal cortex (r = 0.53, P = .03) in adults with ADHD. However, a similar correlation was not found in the controls.
The results confirmed that dopaminergic tone may play a different role in the penalty-elicited response of adults with ADHD. It is plausible that a lower neuro-threshold accompanied by insensitivity to punishment could be exacerbated by the hypodopaminergic tone in ADHD.
BiCuTeO is a potential thermoelectric material owing to its low thermal conductivity and high carrier concentration. However, the thermoelectric performance of BiCuTeO is still below average and has much scope for improvement. In this study, we manipulated the nominal oxygen content in BiCuTeO and synthesized BiCuTeOx (x = 0.94–1.06) bulks by a solid-state reaction and pelletized them by a cold-press method. The power factor was enhanced by varying the nominal oxygen deficiency due to the increased Seebeck coefficient. The thermal conductivity was also reduced due to the decrease in lattice thermal conductivity owing to the small grain size generated by the optimal nominal oxygen content. Consequently, the ZT value was enhanced by ∼11% at 523 K for stoichiometric BiCuTeO0.94 compared to BiCuTeO. Thus, optimal oxygen manipulation in BiCuTeO can enhance the thermoelectric performance. This study can be applied to developing oxides with high thermoelectric performances.
Kennedy's disease (KD) is an X-linked recessive polyglutamine disease. Traditionally, it is a lower motor neuron syndrome with additional features such as gynecomastia and tremor. Sensory symptoms are minimal if ever present. We used multimodal evoked potential (EPs) tests to study the distribution of the involvement of the disease.
Visual, brainstem auditory, somatosensory and motor EPs were studied in six KD patients. All of them had typical presentations and had been proved genetically.
Abnormal findings were noted as follows: prolonged peak latencies of visual EPs, increased hearing threshold level, inconsistent brainstem auditory EPs, decreased amplitudes of cortical potentials of somatosensory EPs, and increased motor threshold to transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Our multimodal EP studies showed that KD involved multiple levels of the nervous system. It implies the widespread effects of the mutant androgen receptors.
Barium strontium titanate (Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3, BST) ceramics prepared by a reaction-sintering process were investigated. The mixture of raw materials of stoichiometric Ba0.7Sr0.3TiO3 was pressed and sintered into ceramics without any calcination stage involved. Perovskite BST ceramics were obtained after sintered at 1330–1370°C for 2–6 h. For 6 h soak time, a density value 5.68g/cm3 (99.8% of the theoretic value) was obtained at 1350°C sintering. Grains of sizes between 2μm and 15μm were formed after 1330–1370°C sintering for 2–6 h. A diffused ferroelectric-paraelectric transition was observed in pellets sintered at 1330°C for 2 h and disappeared at a longer soak time or a higher sintering temperature.
Synthesis of (Pb0.45Ca0.55)(Fe0.5Nb0.5)1-yTiyO3 (y=0 and 0.1; PCFN and PCFNT) ceramics by a reaction-sintering process was investigated. The mixture of raw materials was pressed and sintered into ceramics without any calcination stage involved. The density 5.88g/cm3 (91.6% of the theoretical value) is reached at 1270°C for 2 h soak time in PCFN. Densification increased as B-site was substituted by 10% Ti and a density value 6.21g/cm3 (98.1% of theoretical value) was obtained after 2 h sintering at 1270°C. Grains are of 4.6–19.3μm in PCFN and 2.5–16.5μm in PCFNT at 1150–1270°C. Grain growth was retarded as the B-site was substituted by 10% Ti in PCFN ceramics.
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