The posterior fossa region of the brain is a frequent site for tumour development in children, with over half of all childhood tumours occurring at this site. The principal brain structure implicated at this site is the cerebellum. Children treated for posterior fossa tumours can have a wide range of neurological and psychosocial problems. This paper describes the literature to date that addresses the neuropsychological impact of tumour and treatment in children with posterior fossa tumours. This paper reviews the literature on the causes of morbidity in this group. It discusses the recent research on the role of the cerebellum in outcomes and the studies that identify variables that interact with radiation effects.