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Lithium-ion capacitors (LICs) and Hybrid LICs (H-LICs) were assembled as three-layered pouch cells in an asymmetric configuration employing Faradaic pre-lithiated hard carbon anodes and non-Faradaic ion adsorption-desorption activated carbon (AC) cathodes for LICs and lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4-LFP)/AC composite cathodes for H-LICs. The room temperature rate performance was evaluated after the initial LIC and H-LIC cell formation as a function of the electrolyte additives. The capacity retention was measured after charging at high temperature conditions, while the design factor explored was electrolyte additive formulation, with a focus on their stability. The high temperature potential holds simulate electrochemical energy materials under extreme environments and act to accelerate the failure mechanisms associated with cell degradation to determine robust electrolyte/additive combinations.
Essential variables to consider for an efficient control strategy for invasive plants include dispersion pattern (i.e., satellite or invasion front) and patch expansion rate. These variables were demonstrated for buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link], a C4 perennial grass introduced from Africa, which has invaded broadly around the world. The study site was along a roadway in southern Arizona (USA). The P. ciliare plant distributions show the pattern of clumping associated with the satellite (nascent foci) colonization pattern (average nearest neighbor test, z-score −47.2, P<0.01). The distance between patches ranged from 0.743 to 12.8 km, with an average distance between patches of 5.6 km. Median patch expansion rate was 271% over the 3-yr monitoring period versus 136% found in other studies of established P. ciliare patches. Targeting P. ciliare satellite patches as a control strategy may exponentially reduce the areal doubling time, while targeting the largest patches may have less effect on the invasion speed.
We commend Rotolo et al. (2018) for introducing a new lens for viewing the well-known gap between industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology research and human resource (HR) practices in organizations. However, Rotolo et al.’s characterization of practitioner behavior as “anti I-O” suggests a particularly negative view of scientific research among some HR practitioners. The label implies that some HR practitioners are intentionally ignoring or actively resisting academic research. More likely, the behavior stems from a passive indifference to academia, which may be the appropriate attitude for some practitioners to adopt when a great deal of academic research is too slow, too theoretical, and too cryptically communicated to be useful in applied settings. We agree with Rotolo et al. when they say, “we are a discipline that is not geared for being cutting edge” (p. 182), and we appreciate their recommendations for addressing this lack of relevance. However, most recommendations in this broader discussion do not address the foundational problem within our field: a systemic mismatch between the incentives of practitioners and academics. To support this point, we briefly describe a typology of I-O psychologists as well as the varying contexts and incentives that drive their behavior. We then close with our own recommendations for how academia can improve its relevance to practitioners and close the gap. These changes are not easy, but we agree with Rotolo and colleagues that if any field can address such foundational problems, it is ours.
Objective: The human gut microbiota has been demonstrated to be associated with a number of host phenotypes, including obesity and a number of obesity-associated phenotypes. This study is aimed at further understanding and describing the relationship between the gut microbiota and obesity-associated measurements obtained from human participants. Subjects/Methods: Here, we utilize genetically informative study designs, including a four-corners design (extremes of genetic risk for BMI and of observed BMI; N = 50) and the BMI monozygotic (MZ) discordant twin pair design (N = 30), in order to help delineate the role of host genetics and the gut microbiota in the development of obesity. Results: Our results highlight a negative association between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. The low genetic risk/high BMI group of individuals had a lower gut microbiota alpha diversity when compared to the other three groups. Although the difference in alpha diversity between the lean and heavy groups of the BMI-discordant MZ twin design did not achieve significance, this difference was observed to be in the expected direction, with the heavier participants having a lower average alpha diversity. We have also identified nine OTUs observed to be associated with either a leaner or heavier phenotype, with enrichment for OTUs classified to the Ruminococcaceae and Oxalobacteraceae taxonomic families. Conclusion: Our study presents evidence of a relationship between BMI and alpha diversity of the gut microbiota. In addition to these findings, a number of OTUs were found to be significantly associated with host BMI. These findings may highlight separate subtypes of obesity, one driven by genetic factors, the other more heavily influenced by environmental factors.
To explore the prevalence and drivers of hospital-level variability in antibiotic utilization among hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients to inform antimicrobial stewardship initiatives.
Retrospective cohort study using data merged from the Pediatric Health Information System and the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
The study included 27 transplant centers in freestanding children’s hospitals.
The primary outcome was days of broad-spectrum antibiotic use in the interval from day of HCT through neutrophil engraftment. Hospital antibiotic utilization rates were reported as days of therapy (DOTs) per 1,000 neutropenic days. Negative binomial regression was used to estimate hospital utilization rates, adjusting for patient covariates including demographics, transplant characteristics, and severity of illness. To better quantify the magnitude of hospital variation and to explore hospital-level drivers in addition to patient-level drivers of variation, mixed-effects negative binomial models were also constructed.
Adjusted hospital rates of antipseudomonal antibiotic use varied from 436 to 1121 DOTs per 1,000 neutropenic days, and rates of broad-spectrum, gram-positive antibiotic use varied from 153 to 728 DOTs per 1,000 neutropenic days. We detected variability by hospital in choice of antipseudomonal agent (ie, cephalosporins, penicillins, and carbapenems), but gram-positive coverage was primarily driven by vancomycin use. Considerable center-level variability remained even after controlling for additional hospital-level factors. Antibiotic use was not strongly associated with days of significant illness or mortality.
Among a homogenous population of children undergoing HCT for acute leukemia, both the quantity and spectrum of antibiotic exposure in the immediate posttransplant period varied widely. Antimicrobial stewardship initiatives can apply these data to optimize the use of antibiotics in transplant patients.
The Arctic marine environment is undergoing a transition from thick multi-year to first-year sea-ice cover with coincident lengthening of the melt season. Such changes are evident in the Baffin Bay-Davis Strait-Labrador Sea (BDL) region where melt onset has occurred ~8 days decade−1 earlier from 1979 to 2015. A series of anomalously early events has occurred since the mid-1990s, overlapping a period of increased upper-air ridging across Greenland and the northwestern North Atlantic. We investigate an extreme early melt event observed in spring 2013. (~6σ below the 1981–2010 melt climatology), with respect to preceding sub-seasonal mid-tropospheric circulation conditions as described by a daily Greenland Blocking Index (GBI). The 40-days prior to the 2013 BDL melt onset are characterized by a persistent, strong 500 hPa anticyclone over the region (GBI >+1 on >75% of days). This circulation pattern advected warm air from northeastern Canada and the northwestern Atlantic poleward onto the thin, first-year sea ice and caused melt ~50 days earlier than normal. The episodic increase in the ridging atmospheric pattern near western Greenland as in 2013, exemplified by large positive GBI values, is an important recent process impacting the atmospheric circulation over a North Atlantic cryosphere undergoing accelerated regional climate change.
National security is one of many fields where experts make vague probability assessments when evaluating high-stakes decisions. This practice has always been controversial, and it is often justified on the grounds that making probability assessments too precise could bias analysts or decision makers. Yet these claims have rarely been submitted to rigorous testing. In this paper, we specify behavioral concerns about probabilistic precision into falsifiable hypotheses which we evaluate through survey experiments involving national security professionals. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we find that decision makers responding to quantitative probability assessments are less willing to support risky actions and more receptive to gathering additional information. Yet we also find that when respondents estimate probabilities themselves, quantification magnifies overconfidence, particularly among low-performing assessors. These results hone wide-ranging concerns about probabilistic precision into a specific and previously undocumented bias that training may be able to correct.
Investigations into glacial changes, including understanding variations in the rates of glacial volume and surface-elevation changes, have increased over the past decade. This study uses historical glacier elevation data in the form of topographic maps from 1970 and a digital elevation model from the mid-1980s to calculate surface-elevation and volume changes for Ha-Iltzuk Icefield, southwest British Columbia, Canada. Results indicate that the icefield thinned at an average rate of 0.76±0.25 ma–1 during this period. A previous study of Ha-Iltzuk Icefield also using the geodetic method found a thinning rate of 1.0±0.20ma–1 between the mid-1980s and 1999, indicating a slight increase in the amount of icefield thinning. Within the ablation zone, thinning increased with decreasing elevation at a rate of 1.9±0.68 ma–1 km–1 between these two periods (1970 to mid-1980s versus mid-1980s to 1999). Analysis of meteorological data suggests that increases in both temperature and rainfall, as well as decreases in snowfall, likely contributed to the increased thinning rate.
Several different types of laterally extensive debris bands occur along the western terminus region of the Matanuska Glacier, Alaska, U.S.A. An ice-bed process, which to our knowledge has not previously been recognized and described, forms the most common and most prominent type of debris band at Matanuska Glacier’s terminus. The debris bands are composed of one or several millimeter-thick laminations of silt-rich ice having much higher sediment content than that of the surrounding ice. Samples of these bands and their surrounding englacial ice have been analyzed for anthropogenic tritium (3H), oxygen-18 (δ18O), and deuterium (δD).We interpreted the laminated, silt-rich debris bands as basal fractures, along which silt-laden, glaciohydraulically supercooled and pressurized waters flowed, healing the fractures by ice growth. This process is analogous to the inward growth of hydrothermal quartz from the sides of an open fracture.
Two rain events at Matanuska Glacier illustrate how subglacial drainage system development and snowpack conditions affect hydrologic response at the terminus. On 21 and 22 September 1995, over 56 mm of rain fell in the basin during a period usually characterized by much drier conditions. This event caused an 8-fold increase in discharge and a 47-fold increase in suspended-sediment concentration. Peak suspended-sediment concentration exceeded 20 kg m —3, suggesting rapid evacuation of stored sediment. While water discharge returned to its pre-storm level nine days after the rain ceased, suspended- sediment concentrations took about 20 days to return to pre-storm levels. These observations suggest that the storm influx late in the melt season probably forced subglacial water into a more distributed system. In addition, subglacially transported sediments were supplemented to an unknown degree by the influx of storm-eroded sediments off hillslopes and from tributary drainage basins.
A storm on 6 and 7 June 1997, dropped 28 mm of rain on the basin demonstrating the effects of meltwater retention in the snowpack and englacial and subglacial storage early in the melt season. Streamflow before the storm event was increasing gradually owing to warming temperatures; however, discharge during the storm and the following week increased only slightly. Suspended-sediment concentrations increased only a small amount, suggesting the drainage system was not yet well developed, and much of the run off occurred across the relatively clean surface of the glacier or through englacial channels.
This study adjusts and compares digital elevation models (DEMs) created from photogrammetric and interferometric synthetic aperture radar techniques to determine volume and surface elevation changes of five icefields in a remote region of southwest British Columbia, Canada, between the mid-1980s and 1999. Preliminary differences between the DEMs in ice-free and vegetation-free areas indicated variable elevation offsets with increasing altitude (11 m km−1) and with increasing slope (2.7 m (10°)−1). Results indicate a surface elevation change of −6.0 ± 2.7 m (−0.5 ± 0.2 m a−1) and a total volume loss of −19.4 ± 8.8 km3 (−1.5 ± 0.7 km3 a−1), which represents a potential sea-level rise contribution of 0.004 ± 0.002 mm a−1. Temperature and snowfall data from four nearby meteorological stations indicate that increased temperatures and decreased snowfall throughout the late 1980s and 1990s are a likely cause of the thinning. Glacier terminus positions were compared between a historical map (1927) and satellite images (1974, 1990/91 and 2000/01). All observed glaciers were in retreat between 1927 and 1974, as well as between 1990/91 and 2000/01, but many glaciers advanced or significantly slowed in their retreat between 1974 and 1990/91.
Melt layers are clear indicators of extreme summer warmth on polar ice caps. The visual identification of refrozen meltwater as clear bubble-free layers cannot be used to study some past warm periods, because, in deeper ice, bubbles are lost to clathrate formation. We present here a reliable method to detect melt events, based on the analysis of Kr/Ar and Xe/Ar ratios in ice cores, and apply it to the detection of melt in clathrate ice from the Eemian at NEEM, Greenland. Additionally, melt layers in ice cores can compromise the integrity of the gas record by dissolving soluble gases, or by altering gas transport in the firn, which affects the gas chronology. We find that the easily visible 1 mm thick bubble-free layers in the WAIS Divide ice core do not contain sufficient melt to alter the gas composition in the core, and do not cause artifacts or discontinuities in the gas chronology. The presence of these layers during winter, and the absence of anomalies in soluble gases, suggests that these layers can be formed by processes other than refreezing of meltwater. Consequently, the absence of bubbles in thin crusts is not in itself proof of a melt event.
The Wind River Range in Wyoming, USA, contains the largest concentration of glacial mass in the Rocky Mountains of the contiguous USA. Despite this distinction, only a few field or remotely sensed studies providing glacier volume changes have been published. The current study focuses on Continental Glacier located on the northern end of the range and uses two field datasets (high-accuracy GPS surface elevation points and ice-penetrating radar transects of the glacier bed) to create a three-dimensional model of glacier volume. Current surface elevations are compared with historical elevation data to calculate surface elevation change over time. An average thinning rate of 13.8 ± 7.8 m (0.30 ± 0.17 m a–1) between 1966 and 2012 was found. Surface elevation change rates varied across the glacier, ranging from +0.30 to –0.98 m a–1. Taking into account variable melt rates across the glacier, along with a glacial volume of 72.1 × 106 ± 10.8 × 106 m3, we estimate that Continental Glacier will be reduced in volume by 43% over the next 100 years and will disappear completely over the next 300–400 years, if current climatic conditions persist.
The stratified-facies ice of the basal zone of Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. U.S.A., contains significant concentrations of anthropogenic tritium, whereas unaltered englacial-zone ice is devoid of tritium. Supercooled water flowing through subglacial conduits during the melt season likewise contains tritium, as does frazil and other platy ice that nucleates and grows within this subglacially flowing water. These initial results demonstrate net accretion of more than 1.4 m of stratified basal-zone ice since initiation of above-ground, thermonuclear bomb testing in 1952. Furthermore, these results support a theory of basal ice formation by ice accretion and debris entrainment from supercooled water within a distributed subglacial drainage system.
Simple theory supports field observations (Lawson and others, 1998 that subGlaciol water flow out of overdeepenings can cause accretion of layered, debris-bearing ice to the bases of glaciers. The large meltwater flux into a temperate glacier at the onset of summer melting can cause rapid water flow through expanded basal cavities or other flow paths. If that flow ascends a sufficiently steep slope out of an overdeepèning, the water will supercool as the pressure-melting point rises, and basal-ice accretion will occur. Diurnal, occasional or annual fluctuations in water discharge will cause variations in accretion rate, debris content of accreted ice or subsequent diagenesis, producing layers. Under appropriate conditions, net accretion of debris-bearing basal ice will allow debris fluxes that are significant in the glacier sediment budget.