Languages provide speakers with resources for both referencing and repairing. While referencing is crucial for sustaining intersubjectivity, repairing is crucial for re-establishing intersubjectivity (Auer 1984; Schegloff 1992a; Schegloff et al. 1977). This chapter describes a repair-initiation action that claims that a particular aspect of the prior turn presents “trouble” for its speaker (e.g., understanding the prior turn; for a review of “repair” and its associated terminology, see Schegloff 1992a). The trouble source is treated as being a pro-term/indexical expression (e.g., “it”, “this”, “that”). The repair operation – that is, the interactional move that is performed by the speaker of the trouble source in response to the repair-initiation action being investigated, and that is designed to deal with/resolve the trouble – involves producing a full-reference form/full noun phrase (NP) (e.g., “the folder”, “the token”, “the ticket”) that is relevantly associated with the trouble-source indexical expression. Given that the trouble-source speaker orients to the trouble source as being an indexical expression, and given that the trouble-source speaker resolves the trouble by producing a recipient-designed full-reference form, the repair-related trouble can be characterized as a referent that is (claimed to be) underspecified for the person initiating repair. Languages provide for different types of referents, such as people, places, times, and things. This chapter focuses on a comparative analysis of one repair-initiation action in English and German that always (in our data) is taken by trouble-source speakers as targeting underspecified “thing”-referents. The repair-initiation action being examined is implemented by “Was denn” or “Was.”
This chapter describes how to specify, solve, and draw policy lessons from small, two-sector, general equilibrium models of open, developing economies. In the last two decades, changes in the external environment and economic policies have been instrumental in determining the performance of these economies. The relationship between external shocks and policy responses is complex; this chapter provides a starting point for its analysis.
Two-sector models provide a good starting point because of the nature of the external shocks faced by these countries and the policy responses they elicit. These models capture the essential mechanisms by which external shocks and economic policies ripple through the economy. By and large, the shocks have involved the external sector: terms-of-trade shocks, such as the fourfold increase in the price of oil in 1973–74 or the decline in primary commodity prices in the mid-1980s; or cutbacks in foreign capital inflows. The policy responses most commonly proposed (usually by international agencies) have also been targeted at the external sector: (1) depreciating the real exchange rate to adjust to an adverse terms-of-trade shock or to a cutback in foreign borrowing and (2) reducing distortionary taxes (some of which are trade taxes) to enhance economic efficiency and make the economy more competitive in world markets.
A “minimalist” model that captures the shocks and policies mentioned should therefore emphasize the external sector of the economy. Moreover, many of the problems – and solutions – are related to the relationship between the external sector and the rest of the economy.