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The formation of nickel germanide has been examined over a range of low temperatures (200-400 °C) in an attempt to minimize the thermal budget for the process. Cross-sectional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the texture of the germanide layer and the morphology and constituent composition of the Ge/NiGe interface. The onset and completion of reaction between Ni and Ge were identified by means of a heated stage in combination with in-situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. The stages of reaction were also monitored using measurements of sheet resistance of the germanides by the Van der Pauw technique. The results have shown that the minimum temperature for the initiation of reaction of Ni and Ge to form NiGe was 225 °C. However, an annealing temperature > 275 °C was necessary for the extensive (and practical) formation of NiGe. Between 200 and 300 °C, the duration of annealing required for the formation of NiGe was significantly longer than at higher temperatures. The stoichiometry of the germanide was very close to NiGe (1:1) as determined using energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS).
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a promising material for an optical switch due to the ultrafast and reversible transition between its two phases with contrasting optical, as well as electronic, properties. Meanwhile, erbium (Er3+) has been a standard optical amplifier for the current fiber-optic communication system. Hence, a combination of the two could be expected to make an optical switch capable of simultaneous optical amplification. In the present work, the optical switching and photoluminescence of Er-implanted VO2 were successfully demonstrated. Post-implantation annealing at 800°C or above was seen crucial for the activation of the Er centers in the VO2 crystals.
Hydrogen blister rates in Si (100), Si (111) and Ge (100) substrates are compared as a function of annealing temperature and time, for a range of implant energies and fluences. For each material, the rate of blister formation was found to exhibit Arrhenius behavior and to be characterised by a single activation energy over the temperature range examined. The extracted activation energies were 2.28±0.03 eV, 2.17±0.06 eV and 1.4±0.03 eV for (100) Si; (111) Si and (100) Ge, respectively. These results are compared with reported measurements and discussed in relation to proposed models of hydrogen blistering.
The kinetics of intrinsic and dopant-enhanced solid phase epitaxy (SPE) are studied in thick amorphous germanium (a-Ge) layers formed by ion implantation on <100> Ge substrates. The SPE rates for H-free Ge were measured with a time-resolved reflectivity (TRR) system in the temperature range 300 – 540 °C and found to have an activation energy of (2.15 ± 0.04) eV. Dopant enhanced SPE was measured in a-Ge layers containing a uniform concentration profile of implanted As spanning the concentration regime 1 – 10 × 1019 cm3. The generalized Fermi level shifting model shows excellent fits to the data.
Boron enhanced H diffusion in amorphous Si (a-Si) layers formed by ion implantation is observed using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Constant concentrations of B were achieved using multiple energy B implantations into thick a-Si layers. The evolution of single H implanted profiles centered on the uniformly B-implanted regions was studied for partial anneals at temperatures in the range 380 – 640 °C. Boron enhanced diffusion is observed and the enhanced diffusion coefficient shows trends with temperature typically associated with a Fermi level shifting dependence. A modified form of the generalized Fermi level shifting model is considered in light of these results.
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