To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The loggerhead turtle (Caretta caretta) is a circumglobal species and is listed as vulnerable globally. The North Pacific population nests in Japan and migrates to the Central North Pacific and Pacific coast of North America to feed. In the Mexican Pacific, records of loggerhead presence are largely restricted to the Gulf of Ulloa along the Baja California Peninsula, where very high fisheries by-catch mortality has been reported. Records of loggerhead turtles within the Sea of Cortez also known as the Gulf of California (GC) exist; however, their ecology in this region is poorly understood. We used satellite tracking and an environmental variable analysis (chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST)) to determine movements and habitat use of five juvenile loggerhead turtles ranging in straight carapace length from 62.7–68.3 cm (mean: 66.7 ± 2.3 cm). Satellite tracking durations ranged from 73–293 days (mean: 149 ± 62.5 days), transmissions per turtle from 14–1006 (mean: 462 ± 379.5 transmissions) and total travel distance from 1237–5222 km (mean: 3118 ± 1490.7 km). We used travel rate analyses to identify five foraging areas in the GC, which occurred mainly in waters from 10–80 m deep, with mean Chl-a concentrations ranging from 0.28–13.14 mg m−3 and SST ranging from 27.8–34.4°C. This is the first study to describe loggerhead movements in the Gulf of California and our data suggest that loggerhead foraging movements are performed in areas with eutrophic levels of Chl-a.
Here we provide an update of the 2013 report on the Nigerian Twin and Sibling Registry (NTSR). The major aim of the NTSR is to understand genetic and environmental influences and their interplay in psychological and mental health development in Nigerian children and adolescents. Africans have the highest twin birth rates among all human populations, and Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa. Due to its combination of large population and high twin birth rates, Nigeria has one of the largest twin populations in the world. In this article, we provide current updates on the NTSR samples recruited, recruitment procedures, zygosity assessment and findings emerging from the NTSR.
Neurodevelopment is sensitive to genetic and pre/postnatal environmental influences. These effects are likely mediated by epigenetic factors, yet current knowledge is limited. Longitudinal twin studies can delineate the link between genetic and environmental factors, epigenetic state at birth and neurodevelopment later in childhood. Building upon our study of the Peri/postnatal Epigenetic Twin Study (PETS) from gestation to 6 years of age, here we describe the PETS 11-year follow-up in which we will use neuroimaging and cognitive testing to examine the relationship between early-life environment, epigenetics and neurocognitive outcomes in mid-childhood. Using a within-pair twin model, the primary aims are to (1) identify early-life epigenetic correlates of neurocognitive outcomes; (2) determine the developmental stability of epigenetic effects and (3) identify modifiable environmental risk factors. Secondary aims are to identify factors influencing gut microbiota between 6 and 11 years of age to investigate links between gut microbiota and neurodevelopmental outcomes in mid-childhood. Approximately 210 twin pairs will undergo an assessment at 11 years of age. This includes a direct child cognitive assessment, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging, biological sampling, anthropometric measurements and a range of questionnaires on health and development, behavior, dietary habits and sleeping patterns. Data from complementary data sources, including the National Assessment Program — Literacy and Numeracy and the Australian Early Development Census, will also be sought. Following on from our previous focus on relationships between growth, cardiovascular health and oral health, this next phase of PETS will significantly advance our understanding of the environmental interactions that shape the developing brain.
Twins Research Australia (TRA) is a community of twins and researchers working on health research to benefit everyone, including twins. TRA leads multidisciplinary research through the application of twin and family study designs, with the aim of sustaining long-term twin research that, both now and in the future, gives back to the community. This article summarizes TRA’s recent achievements and future directions, including new methodologies addressing causation, linkage to health, economic and educational administrative datasets and to geospatial data to provide insight into health and disease. We also explain how TRA’s knowledge translation and exchange activities are key to communicating the impact of twin studies to twins and the wider community. Building researcher capability, providing registry resources and partnering with all key stakeholders, particularly the participants, are important for how TRA is advancing twin research to improve health outcomes for society. TRA provides researchers with open access to its vibrant volunteer membership of twins, higher order multiples (multiples) and families who are willing to consider participation in research. Established four decades ago, this resource facilitates and supports research across multiple stages and a breadth of health domains.
The aim of the Avera Twin Register (ATR) is to establish a prospective longitudinal repository of twins, multiples, siblings and family members’ biological samples to study environmental and genetic influences on health and disease. Also, it is our intention to contribute to international genome-wide association study (GWAS) twin consortia when appropriate sample size is achieved within the ATR. The ATR is young compared with existing registers and continues to collect a longitudinal repository of biological specimens, survey data and health information. Data and biological specimens were originally collected via face-to-face appointments or the postal department and consisted of paper-informed consents and questionnaires. Enrollment of the ATR began on May 18, 2016 and is located in Sioux Falls, South Dakota, a rural and frontier area in the Central United States with a regional population of approximately 880,000. The original target area for the ATR was South Dakota and the four surrounding states: Minnesota, Iowa, North Dakota and Nebraska. The ATR has found a need to expand that area based on twin and multiple siblings who live in various areas surrounding these states. A description of the state of the ATR today and its transition to online data collection and informed consent will be presented. The ATR collects longitudinal data on lifestyle, including diet and activity levels, aging, plus complex traits and diseases. All twins and multiples participating in the ATR are genotyped on the Illumina Global Screening Array and receive zygosity results.
Oesophageal perforation is a rarely reported complication of transoesophageal echocardiography in infants. This case involves a 3.1-kg neonate with Trisomy 21, atrioventricular septal defect, and hypoplastic aortic arch undergoing aortic arch advancement and pulmonary artery banding. A paediatric transoesophageal echocardiography probe was placed intraoperatively causing a contained false passage from the oesophagus below the cricopharyngeus muscle with extension into the left posterior mediastinum. The perforation healed within 2 weeks without permanent sequelae after conservative medical management.
Digital Formations: IT and New Architectures in the Global
Realm. Edited by Robert Latham and Saskia Sassen. Princeton:
Princeton University Press, 2005. 367p. $65.00 cloth, $27.95 paper.
This is an interesting collection of essays about what the editors
call “digital formations.” A social formation is something in
society that is emerging without a single founding event, in its early
stages of development, and tending toward a variable structure and nature
(p. 9). Despite this, “you should be able to identify a coherent
configuration of organization, space, and interaction” (p. 10).
Several of the social formations studied by the authors in this volume are
only partly digital: that is, they combine digital and nondigital
elements. They are all, however, subject to “digitization,”
which involves the “rendering of facets of social and political life
in a digital form” (p. 16). One important reason for studying
digital formations is that some are potentially “destabilizing of
existing hierarchies of scale and nested hierarchies” (p. 19), while
others reinforce them. An example of the former is the open-source
software movement (as chronicled here by Steve Weber); an example of the
latter is what Dieter Ernst in his chapter calls the “global
flagship networks” created by large multinational corporations.
Information Please: Culture and Politics in the Age of
Digital Machines. By Mark Poster. Durham, NC: Duke
University Press, 2006. 393p. $79.95 Cloth, $22.95 paper.
In this book, Mark Poster attempts to provide a philosophical
framework for understanding the significance of the rise of
computers, the Internet, and the other digital technologies. His
argument is that the diffusion of these new technologies results in
“complex couplings of humans and machines” (p. 9) that call into
question some of the central ideas of our time. The discussion
starts with postcolonial theory and then moves on to recent theories
of empire, citizenship, identity, ethics, psychoanalysis,
intellectual property rights, everyday life, and consumer culture.
It is an ambitious work and difficult to read in passages, but the
effort is worth it.
Studies were conducted in New Jersey and Virginia to evaluate the response of ‘Aurora Gold’ hard fescue, which had undergone five cycles of phenotypic recurrent selection for increased glyphosate tolerance, to direct applications of glyphosate. ‘Discovery’ hard fescue, which had not undergone recurrent selection, was also included in the study. Glyphosate treatments were initiated in early/mid-May and applied once, twice, or three times at 4- to 5-wk intervals at rates ranging from 0.1 to 1.6 kg ae/ha. Aurora Gold was more tolerant to glyphosate than Discovery in all experiments, indicating that recurrent selection was successful in increasing glyphosate tolerance in hard fescue. Single applications of glyphosate at rates ranging from 0.6 to 0.8 kg/ha could be applied to Aurora Gold with minimal injury or stand thinning (<20%), whereas multiple applications of glyphosate could be applied at rates ranging from 0.4 to 0.6 kg/ha. The use of Aurora Gold in areas planted to hard fescue, such as golf course roughs, vineyards, orchards, and landscapes, would allow the integration of direct glyphosate applications into an overall weed management program providing potential economic and environmental benefits.
The global story of HDTV begins with the decision of Japan's national public broadcaster, NHK (Nippon Hoso Kyokai), to begin research on next-generation television technologies. Prior to and during the 1964 Tokyo Olympics, there was a major jump in TV sales in Japan. The dissatisfaction of engineers at NHK's Technical Laboratories with the quality of television coverage of the Tokyo Olympics and the improved ability of NHK to finance television research were the two main reasons why NHK Laboratories began to do research on advanced television technologies in 1964. From that point on, NHK was the key actor pushing for HDTV in Japan. NHK's leadership depended critically on its control over the core technologies for Japan's version of HDTV. Because NHK was enjoined by law not to engage directly in manufacturing activities, it began in 1970 to assemble a coalition of manufacturers to support its work on HDTV technologies. NHK then used its coalition to win support for national HDTV standards. It did not succeed in winning sufficient support for its approach to HDTV outside of Japan, however, for reasons to be explored in later chapters.
NHK's research on MUSE/Hi-Vision
Two NHK laboratories were established in 1930: one for broadcasting issues (including viewer surveys) and the other for technical issues. NHK Science and Technical Research Laboratories (NHK Labs for short) were supposed to investigate scientific and technical issues with the potential to have long-term effects on broadcasting.
Chapter 5 provided a history of the US debate over HDTV standards up to the decision on 23 May 1993 to merge the competing electronics firms into a “grand alliance” for a digital high-definition television system. This chapter starts from that point and brings the history up to and bit beyond 3 April 1997, when the Federal Communications Commission formally adopted a standard for digital television (DTV) in the United States. During this period, there was a change in the attitude of the members of the National Association of Broadcasters toward HDTV: they began to see it as an answer to the problem of declining audience shares. There were also continuous but only partially successful lobbying efforts on the part of major computer firms to have the HDTV standards modified to accommodate their perceived interests. The most important change was brought about by the victory of William Jefferson Clinton in the 1992 presidential elections. Clinton's Vice President, Albert Gore, was a strong exponent of governmental support for the building of an “Information Superhighway.” Clinton, Gore, and their appointed head of the Federal Communications Commission, Reed Hundt, came to believe in the idea of “digital convergence” and had strong views on the role that television should play in that larger project.
Interlace vs. progressive-scan: round one
There was furious bargaining within the grand alliance prior to the announcement of its formation on 24 May 1993 to reconcile the differences in the four digital systems.
We live in the midst of a transition to an age of digital technologies. As in previous large technological transitions, many established interests are threatened and many new ones have arisen. The semiconductor, computer, telecommunications, and software industries (the core information technology industries) have become the political voice of these new interests. Just as innovators like Andrew Carnegie came to symbolize the iron and steel industry in the nineteenth century, and Henry Ford the automobile industry in the early twentieth century, industry figures like Steve Jobs of Apple, Andy Grove of Intel, and Bill Gates of Microsoft represented the spirit of the information age. These new icons of innovation lobbied for policies that were sometimes inconsistent with those favored by older industries, such as textiles, steel, chemicals, and motor vehicles.
Joseph Schumpeter called this displacement resulting from technological change of old interests by new ones “creative destruction.” Older industries, according to Schumpeter, would organize politically to block the institutional changes that accompanied the introduction of new technologies. If these changes were delayed, then a shift in the distribution of political power could also be delayed. But eventually, competitive pressures would overcome the resistance to institutional change and a new distribution of power would emerge to force the old interests to come to terms with the new.
Something of this sort occurred in the debates over high definition television (HDTV) and digital television (DTV) that began in the early 1980s.
The international HDTV standard-setting effort became especially politicized due to competitive imbalances between the three major poles of industrial activity: Japan, Europe, and the United States. The significance of these imbalances was magnified by certain structural weaknesses of the European Commission, which led to an especially complicated interaction among the regions, and which ultimately defeated hopes for a unified world standard.
After NHK initially gained the upper hand in Japanese policy circles it tried to consolidate its position through ties to American users of the new technology whose behavior would affect the attractiveness of the MUSE/Hi-Vision standard internationally. NHK then tried to use that transnational coalition to globalize its standard in the CCIR, which would have further strengthened its position at home. Compromises made in order to secure American collaboration backfired, however, as they alerted key European consumer electronics firms and the European Commission to the potential threat to European competitiveness. As the guardian of the “Community interest,” the Commission played up the potential harmful consequences of global adoption of a Japanese standard for the market position of European electronics and audiovisual producers. The Commission then forged a blocking coalition with producers and PTTs that enabled Europe to forestall a choice on global standards. The European delay activated American interests which had hitherto been passive about the issue, sparking debate in America with respect to the technology's consumer and strategic implications and rekindling a competitive standards-setting process in the US.