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Susceptibility of a system to colonization by a weed is in part a function of environmental resource availability. Doveweed [Murdannia nudiflora (L.) Brenan] can establish in a variety of environments; however, it is found mostly in wet or low-lying areas with reduced interspecies competition. Four studies evaluated the effect of mowing height, interspecies competition, and nitrogen, light, and soil moisture availability on M. nudiflora establishment and growth. A field study evaluated the effect of mowing height on M. nudiflora establishment. In comparison with unmowed plots, mowing at 2 and 4 cm reduced spread 46% and 30%, respectively, at 9 wk after planting. Effect of mowing height and nitrogen fertilization on ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Burtt-Davy×C. transvaalensis L. Pers.) and M. nudiflora interspecies competition was evaluated in a greenhouse trial. Murdannia nudiflora coverage was 62% greater in flats maintained at 2.6 cm than flats maintained at 1.3 cm. Supplemental application of 49 kg N ha−1 mo−1 increased M. nudiflora coverage 75% in comparison with 24.5 kg N ha−1 mo−1. A difference in M. nudiflora coverage could not be detected between flats receiving 0 and 24.5 kg N ha−1 mo−1, suggesting moderate nitrogen fertilization does not encourage M. nudiflora colonization. Effect of light availability on M. nudiflora growth and development was evaluated in a greenhouse study. Growth in a 30%, 50%, or 70% reduced light environment (RLE) did not affect shoot growth on a dry weight basis in comparison with plants grown under full irradiance; however, internode length was 28% longer in a 30% RLE and 39% longer in a 50% and 70% RLE. Effect of soil moisture on M. nudiflora growth and development was evaluated in a greenhouse study. Plants maintained at 50%, 75%, and 100% field capacity (FC) increased biomass>200% compared with plants maintained at 12.5% or 25% FC.
Multisymplecticity and the variational bicomplex are two subjects which have developed independently. Our main observation is that re-analysis of multisymplectic systems from the view of the variational bicomplex not only is natural but also generates new fundamental ideas about multisymplectic Hamiltonian PDEs. The variational bicomplex provides a natural grading of differential forms according to their base and fibre components, and this structure generates a new relation between the geometry of the base, covariant multisymplectic PDEs and the conservation of symplecticity. Our formulation also suggests a new view of Noether theory for multisymplectic systems, leading to a definition of multimomentum maps that we apply to give a coordinate-free description of multisymplectic relative equilibria. Our principal example is the class of multisymplectic systems on the total exterior algebra bundle over a Riemannian manifold.
This study provides the first prospective evaluation of the course and predictors of children's involvement with fire over a 2-year period in 268 nonpatient and patient children (ages 6–13 yrs). Selected predictor variables obtained at initial (intake) assessment, which included fire-specific and general psychosocial measures, were examined in each sample using hierarchical logistic regression. Both samples reported heightened involvement in matchplay and firesetting at follow-up, though the frequency of each behavior was nearly four times higher in patients than in nonpatients. Fifty per cent and 59% of the initial firesetters in the nonpatient and patient samples, respectively, became recidivists. In the nonpatient sample, the child's initial involvement in firesetting and level of covert antisocial behavior were the only psychosocial predictors of follow-up firesetting that added incremental variance beyond demographics. In the patient sample, the child's initial involvement in fire-related acts and level of covert antisocial behavior were the only predictors of follow-up firesetting beyond any initial involvement in matchplay. The findings highlight somewhat different risk factors for subsequent firesetting in nonpatient and patient children, especially prior firesetting and matchplay, respectively, and bear implications for the prevention of firesetting recidivism.
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