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Acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP) of cattle has been recognized for many decades. While the pathogenesis and risk factors for this condition in pastured cattle are relatively well characterized, there remains a poor understanding of the disease as it occurs in intensively fed cattle such as in beef feedlots. Specifically, in pastured cattle, AIP results from excessive ruminal production of the pneumotoxicant 3-methylindole (3-MI). In feedlot cattle, the evidence to substantiate the role of 3-MI is comparatively deficient and further investigations into the cause, pathogenesis, and control are sorely needed. This review highlights our current understanding of AIP with a focus on the disease as it occurs in feedlot cattle. Additionally, it illustrates the need for further work in understanding the specific animal factors (e.g. the ruminal microbiome, and the role of concurrent diseases), management factors (e.g. animal stocking and vaccination protocols), and dietary factors (e.g. dietary supplements) that may impact the development of AIP and which are relatively unique to the feedlot setting. All stakeholders in the beef industry stand to benefit from a greater understanding of what remains a pressing yet poorly understood issue in beef production.
Two introduced carnivores, the European red fox Vulpes vulpes and domestic cat Felis catus, have had extensive impacts on Australian biodiversity. In this study, we collate information on consumption of Australian birds by the fox, paralleling a recent study reporting on birds consumed by cats. We found records of consumption by foxes on 128 native bird species (18% of the non-vagrant bird fauna and 25% of those species within the fox’s range), a smaller tally than for cats (343 species, including 297 within the fox’s Australian range, a subset of that of the cat). Most (81%) bird species eaten by foxes are also eaten by cats, suggesting that predation impacts are compounded. As with consumption by cats, birds that nest or forage on the ground are most likely to be consumed by foxes. However, there is also some partitioning, with records of consumption by foxes but not cats for 25 bird species, indicating that impacts of the two predators may also be complementary. Bird species ≥3.4 kg were more likely to be eaten by foxes, and those <3.4 kg by cats. Our compilation provides an inventory and describes characteristics of Australian bird species known to be consumed by foxes, but we acknowledge that records of predation do not imply population-level impacts. Nonetheless, there is sufficient information from other studies to demonstrate that fox predation has significant impacts on the population viability of some Australian birds, especially larger birds, and those that nest or forage on the ground.
XtendFlexTM cotton with resistance to glyphosate, glufosinate, and dicamba may become available in Australia. Resistance to these herbicides enables two additional modes of action to be applied in crop. The double-knock strategy, typically glyphosate followed by paraquat, has been a successful tactic for control of glyphosate-resistant cotton in fallow situations in Australia. Glufosinate is a contact herbicide and may be useful as the second herbicide in a double knock for use in XtendFlexTM cotton crops. We tested the effectiveness of glufosinate applied at intervals of 1, 3, 7, and 10 d after initial applications of glyphosate, dicamba, clethodim, and glyphosate mixtures with dicamba or clethodim on glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible populations of flaxleaf fleabane, common sowthistle, feather fingergrass, windmill grass, and junglerice. Effective treatments for flaxleaf fleabane with 100% control were dicamba and glyphosate+dicamba followed by glufosinate independent of the interval between applications. Common sowthistle was effectively controlled in Experiment 1 by all treatments. However, in Experiment 2, effective treatments were dicamba and glyphosate+dicamba followed by glufosinate (99.3% to 100% control). Timing of the follow-up glufosinate did not affect the control achieved. Consistent control of feather fingergrass was achieved with glyphosate, clethodim, or glyphosate+clethodim followed by glufosinate at 7-d and 10-d intervals (99.7% to 100% control). Control of feather fingergrass was inconsistent. The best treatment for windmill grass was glyphosate+clethodim followed by glufosinate 10 d later (99.8% to 100% control). Junglerice was effectively controlled with all treatments except for glyphosate on the glyphosate-resistant population. Additional in-crop use of glufosinate and dicamba should be beneficial for weed management in XtendFlexTM cotton crops, when using the double knock tactic with glufosinate. For effective herbicide resistance management, it is important that these herbicides be used in addition to, rather than substitution for, existing weed management tactics.
ABSTRACT IMPACT: Quantification of neonatal THC exposure will allow for better insight into how THC exposure correlates with neurodevelopmental outcomes. OBJECTIVES/GOALS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) use has become increasingly prevalent in recent years, including among pregnant women. However, few, if any, clinical studies have quantified precise in utero exposure levels of THC during pregnancy. Our study aims to fill this gap by using analytical methods to quantify THC in mother and baby following prenatal THC use. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Pregnant women were asked to give a self-report of all cannabis and cannabinoid use during pregnancy, including dose, frequency, and route of consumption. Upon arrival at the labor and delivery unit, maternal blood samples were collected. Immediately following birth and 24 hours after birth, umbilical cord and neonatal blood samples were collected, respectively. All blood samples were analyzed using tandem liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the presence of THC, tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid (THC-COOH), and hydroxy-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-OH). Maternal THC and metabolite levels were compared to both cord and neonate samples. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, we have collected 3 mother-infant sample dyads and 4 mother-infant control samples. We anticipate collecting a total of 20 mother-infant samples from each group. We will quantify levels of THC and its metabolites in maternal samples and compare these to cord and infant samples. We expect that THC/metabolite levels will vary as a function of dose and frequency of consumption. We also expect that THC/metabolites will be higher in umbilical cord blood relative to neonatal blood. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF FINDINGS: This study is among the first to directly measure exposure in the neonate following prenatal cannabis use. Quantification of THC/metabolite concentrations will be supplemented with developmental evaluations of infants at 6 and 12 months of age in order to gain better insight into how THC exposure correlates with neurodevelopmental outcomes.
Understanding place-based contributors to health requires geographically and culturally diverse study populations, but sharing location data is a significant challenge to multisite studies. Here, we describe a standardized and reproducible method to perform geospatial analyses for multisite studies. Using census tract-level information, we created software for geocoding and geospatial data linkage that was distributed to a consortium of birth cohorts located throughout the USA. Individual sites performed geospatial linkages and returned tract-level information for 8810 children to a central site for analyses. Our generalizable approach demonstrates the feasibility of geospatial analyses across study sites to promote collaborative translational research.
Widespread testing for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is necessary to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but testing is undermined when the only option is a nasopharyngeal swab. Self-collected swab techniques can overcome many of the disadvantages of a nasopharyngeal swab, but they require evaluation.
Three self-collected non-nasopharyngeal swab techniques (saline gargle, oral swab and combined oral-anterior nasal swab) were compared to a nasopharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 detection at multiple COVID-19 assessment centers in Toronto, Canada. The performance characteristics of each test were assessed.
The adjusted sensitivity of the saline gargle was 0.90 (95% CI 0.86-0.94), the oral swab was 0.82 (95% CI, 0.72–0.89) and the combined oral–anterior nasal swab was 0.87 (95% CI, 0.77–0.93) compared to a nasopharyngeal swab, which demonstrated a sensitivity of ˜90% when all positive tests were the reference standard. The median cycle threshold values for the SARS-CoV-2 E-gene for concordant and discordant saline gargle specimens were 17 and 31 (P < .001), for the oral swabs these values were 17 and 28 (P < .001), and for oral–anterior nasal swabs these values were 18 and 31 (P = .007).
Self-collected saline gargle and an oral–anterior nasal swab have a similar sensitivity to a nasopharyngeal swab for the detection of SARS-CoV-2. These alternative collection techniques are cheap and can eliminate barriers to testing, particularly in underserved populations.
This article focuses on the way that staff and guardians in the rural Nottinghamshire workhouse of Southwell sought to exert control and containment over pauper inmates. Fusing together local and central records for the period 1834–71, including locally held punishment books and correspondence at The National Archives, Kew (TNA), we argue that the notional power of the workhouse authorities was heavily shaded. Most paupers most of the time did not find their behaviour heavily and clumsily controlled. Rather, staff focused their attention in terms of detecting and punishing disorderly behaviour on a small group of long-term and often mentally ill paupers whose actions might create enmities or spiral into larger conflicts and dissent in the workhouse setting. Both inmates and those under threat of workhouse admission would have seen or heard about punishment of ‘the usual characters’. This has important implications for how we understand the intent and experience of the New Poor Law up to the formation of the Local Government Board (LGB) in 1871.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The objective of this research was to assess the clinical impact of simulation-based team leadership training on team leadership effectiveness and patient care during actual trauma resuscitations. This translational work addresses an important gap in simulation research and medical education research. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Eligible trauma team leaders were randomized to the intervention (4-hour simulation-based leadership training) or control (standard training) condition. Subject-led actual trauma patient resuscitations were video recorded and coded for leadership behaviors (primary outcome) and patient care (secondary outcome) using novel leadership and trauma patient care metrics. Patient outcomes for trauma resuscitations were obtained through the Harborview Medical Center Trauma Registry and analyzed descriptively. A one-way ANCOVA analysis was conducted to test the effectiveness of our training intervention versus a control group for each outcome (leadership effectiveness and patient care) while accounting for pre-training performance, injury severity score, postgraduate training year, and days since training occurred. Association between leadership effectiveness and patient care was evaluated using random coefficient modeling. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Sixty team leaders, 30 in each condition, completed the study. There was a significant difference in post-training leadership effectiveness [F(1,54)=30.19, p<.001, η2=.36] between the experimental and control conditions. There was no direct impact of training on patient care [F(1,54)=1.0, p=0.33, η2=.02]; however, leadership effectiveness mediated an indirect effect of training on patient care. Across all trauma resuscitations team leader effectiveness correlated with patient care (p<0.05) as predicted by team leadership conceptual models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This work represents a critical step in advancing translational simulation-based research (TSR). While there are several examples of high quality translational research programs, they primarily focus on procedural tasks and do not evaluate highly complex skills such as leadership. Complex skills present significant measurement challenges because individuals and processes are interrelated, with multiple components and emergent nature of tasks and related behaviors. We provide evidence that simulation-based training of a complex skill (team leadership behavior) transfers to a complex clinical setting (emergency department) with highly variable clinical tasks (trauma resuscitations). Our novel team leadership training significantly improved overall leadership performance and partially mediated the positive effect between leadership and patient care. This represents the first rigorous, randomized, controlled trial of a leadership or teamwork-focused training that systematically evaluates the impact on process (leadership) and performance (patient care).
Objectives: The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and implementation of a standardized medically supervised concussion protocol established between a city-wide AAA hockey league and a multi-disciplinary concussion program. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of injury surveillance, clinical and healthcare utilization data from all athletes evaluated and managed through the Winnipeg AAA Hockey concussion protocol during the 2016-2017 season. We also conducted post-season email surveys of head coaches and parents responsible for athletes who competed in the same season. Results: During the 2016-2017 season, 28 athletes were evaluated through the medically supervised concussion protocol, with two athletes undergoing evaluation for repeat injuries (a total of 30 suspected injuries and consultations). In all, 96.7% of the athletes managed through the concussion protocol were captured by the league-designated Concussion Protocol Coordinator and 100% of eligible athletes underwent complete medical follow-up and clearance to return to full hockey activities. Although 90% of responding head coaches and 91% of parents were aware of the concussion protocol, survey results suggest that some athletes who sustained suspected concussions were not managed through the protocol. Head coaches and parents also indicated that athlete education and communication between medical and sport stakeholders were other elements of the concussion protocol that could be improved. Conclusion: Successful implementation of a medically supervised concussion protocol for youth hockey requires clear communication between sport stakeholders and timely access to multi-disciplinary experts in traumatic brain and spine injuries. Standardized concussion protocols for youth sports may benefit from periodic evaluations by sport stakeholders and incorporation of national guideline best practices and resources.
Cellular adhesion depends on the integration of numerous signaling inputs generated by the chemical and physical properties of the substrate. The complex coupling among inputs makes it challenging experimentally to deconvolve their individual contributions to the adhesion process. To address this roadblock, we have employed a combination of electron beam and optical lithographic techniques to fabricate substrates with independently tunable topographical and chemical signaling cues. Arrays of gold nanostructures were patterned atop quartz substrates, half of which were etched into gold-capped nanopillars. Individual A549 cells exposed simultaneously to Arg-Gly-Asp-functionalized etched and non-etched arrays exhibited strongly preferential adherence to the nanopillars.
Wild carrot is becoming a serious weed problem in Michigan continuous no-tillage crop production. Greenhouse and field research was conducted to identify effective management strategies for wild carrot control in no-tillage cropping systems. In the greenhouse, PRE applications of acetochlor plus dichlormid (5.8:1 w:w), cyanazine, linuron plus chlorimuron (18:1), and metribuzin plus chlorimuron (10:1) and POST applications of bentazon, CGA-152005, clopyralid, cyanazine, and MON 12000 provided the greatest control of wild carrot seedlings. In the field, PRE and POST treatments containing chlorimuron consistently controlled overwintered wild carrot greater than 71% at 30 d after the POST application in no-tillage soybean. Atrazine, MON 12000, nicosulfuron, and primisulfuron applied POST consistently controlled overwintered wild carrot greater than 78% at 30 DAT in no-tillage corn. Glyphosate at 0.84 or 1.68 kg ae/ha applied in October to established wild carrot provided greater than 74% control the following spring. Early preplant (EPP) applications of glyphosate at 0.84 kg/ha in no-tillage soybean gave 95 and 24% control of overwintered wild carrot in St. Clair and Lenawee Counties, MI, respectively, at 70 DAT. PRE applications of glyphosate at 0.84 kg/ha controlled overwintered wild carrot less than 69% at 58 DAT in no-tillage corn and soybean. Fall applications of 2,4-D ester at 1.12 kg ae/ha provided 18 and 88% control of wild carrot the following spring in Clinton and Lenawee Counties, respectively. EPP applications of 2,4-D ester at 1.12 kg/ha provided 7 and 72% control of overwintered wild carrot in St. Clair and Lenawee Counties, respectively.
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of a carbon band to provide a “safe zone” for seedling emergence and growth of three native grass species. ‘KIKA677’ streambed bristlegrass germplasm, ‘Alamo’ switchgrass, and ‘Waelder’ shortspike windmillgrass germplasm were used in combination with several PRE- and POST-applied herbicides including cloransulam, flumioxazin, imazapic, imazethapyr, and 2,4-D. In a greenhouse experiment, switchgrass emergence was improved when a carbon band was used with imazapic or imazethapyr at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ai ha−1 or 2,4-D at 2.12 kg ae ha−1. Windmillgrass emergence was improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.05 and 0.1 kg ai ha−1, imazapic at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ha−1, imazethapyr at 0.07 kg ha−1, and 2,4-D at 1.06 kg ha−1, whereas bristlegrass emergence was improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.1 kg ai ha−1, imazapic at both rates, and imazethapyr at 0.04 kg ha−1. Field studies indicated that flumioxazin at 0.05 and 0.1 kg ha−1, imazapic at 0.04 kg ha−1, and imazethapyr at 0.04 and 0.07 kg ha−1, were safened for bristlegrass and switchgrass emergence when used with carbon. Windmillgrass emergence and growth were improved when carbon was used in combination with flumioxazin at 0.1 kg ha−1.
Differential response of wild carrot to 2,4-D was found in seeds collected from 10 locations in Michigan, three in Ohio, one in Illinois, and one in Ontario, Canada. Greenhouse studies were conducted on plants grown from the collected seeds to confirm resistance of wild carrot to 2,4-D, and to study variations among and within populations. The differential response of wild carrot to 2,4-D in field research was due to resistant individuals. Among the 14 locations, wild carrot control with 2,4-D ranged from 18 to 91%. Wild carrot varied in its response to 2,4-D among and within populations as well as within individual umbels. In 69% of the tested samples, at least one wild carrot plant was resistant to 2,4-D.
Quinoclamine is used in Europe, and was under evaluation in the Unites States for the control of liverwort in nursery crops. Liverwort is a nonvascular, chlorophyll-containing plant that can be problematic in greenhouse and nursery crops. POST-applied quinoclamine controls liverwort. However, liverwort structures vary in their sensitivity to POST-applied quinoclamine. Specifically, archegonial receptacles (female) are much more tolerant of quinoclamine than either antheridial receptacles (male) or thalli (leaflike structures). A series of studies were conducted to, first, document the degree of differential sensitivity between tissues to quinoclamine, and second, to determine the basis of this differential sensitivity. The dose that results in 50% of the population being controlled (I50) of antheridial receptacles and juvenile thalli were estimated to be 1.60 and 1.27 kg·ha−1, respectively. The I50 of archegonial receptacles could not be estimated, but exceeded 10.45 kg·ha−1. Chlorophyll content varied between liverwort tissues, but the content did not correlate to quinoclamine sensitivity. Absorption of 14C after application of radiolabeled quinoclamine was less in archegonial receptacles than in either antheridial receptacles or thalli. Scanning electron microscopy of the surface of the liverwort tissues revealed that archegonial receptacles had smaller pores (equivalent to stomata in higher plants) than either antheridial receptacles or thalli. The tolerance of archegonial receptacles to quinoclamine can be partially, but not exclusively, attributed to reduced absorption. This reduced absorption may be attributed to the limited pore size and less total pore area of the archegonial receptacles.
Postemergence-applied diuron effectively controls yellow woodsorrel in nursery crops grown in pine bark–based container substrate. Whether the phytotoxicity of diuron on yellow woodsorrel is exclusively the result of foliar activity or is partially the result of root-based activity has not been determined. Application in which diuron was allowed to contact both the foliage and the pine bark–based substrate provided 84% control as determined by shoot fresh-weight reduction relative to that of a nontreated control. Foliar-only and root-only applications provided 52 and 12% shoot fresh-weight reduction, respectively. Absorption and translocation of foliar-applied diuron by yellow woodsorrel was evaluated using radiotracer techniques. After 24 h, 86% of the applied diuron had been absorbed, and 76% of the amount applied remained in the treated leaflet, indicating minimal translocation. Diuron sorption by the pine bark–based substrate was evaluated using radiotracer techniques. After 3 h, less than 6% of applied diuron remained in the aqueous phase, indicating 94% sorption. Exposing yellow woodsorrel roots to diuron concentrations as low as 0.50 mg/L resulted in injury, and concentrations equal to or greater than 10 mg/L resulted in death. Calculations described herein indicate the concentration that probably would occur within the aqueous solution held within the substrate following a 1.12-kg ai/ha application is sufficient to be phytotoxic to yellow woodsorrel. Thus, root-based absorption is a contributing factor in the overall efficacy of postemergence-applied diuron in controlling yellow woodsorrel.
We develop a new approach for modeling public sentiment by micro-level geographic region based on Bayesian hierarchical spatial modeling. Recent production of detailed geospatial political data means that modeling and measurement lag behind available information. The output of the models gives not only nuanced regional differences and relationships between states, but more robust state-level aggregations that update past research on measuring constituency opinion. We rely here on the spatial relationships among observations and units of measurement in order to extract measurements of ideology as geographically narrow as measured covariates. We present an application in which we measure state and district ideology in the United States in 2008.
This paper describes the characteristics of damage, introduced under different conditions of diamond wire sawing, on the Si wafer surfaces. The damage occurs in the form of frozen-in dislocations, phase changes, and microcracks. The in-depth damage was determined by conventional ways such as TEM, SEM and angle-polishing/defect-etching, which only provide local information. We have also applied a new technique based on sequential measurement of the minority carrier lifetime after etching thin layers from the surfaces to determine average damage depth and its in-depth distribution. The lateral spatial damage variations, which seem to be mainly related to wire reciprocation process, were observed by photoluminescence and lifetime mapping. Our results show a strong correlation of damage depth on the diamond grit size and wire usage.