Horseweed populations with mixtures of biotypes resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides as well as biotypes with multiple resistance to glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides have been documented in Indiana and Ohio. These biotypes are particularly problematic because ALS-inhibiting herbicides are commonly tank mixed with glyphosate to improve postemergence horseweed control in soybean. The objective of this research was to characterize the growth and seed production of horseweed populations with resistance to glyphosate or ALS-inhibiting herbicides, and multiple resistance to glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides. A four-herbicide by four-horseweed population factorial field experiment was conducted in the southeastern region of Indiana in 2007 and repeated in 2008. Four horseweed populations were collected from Indiana or Ohio and confirmed resistant to glyphosate, ALS inhibitors, both, or neither in greenhouse experiments. The four herbicide treatments were untreated, 0.84 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate, 35 g ai ha−1 cloransulam, and 0.84 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate + 35 g ai ha−1 cloransulam. Untreated plants from horseweed populations that were resistant to glyphosate, ALS-inhibiting, or multiple glyphosate + ALS-inhibiting herbicides produced similar amounts of biomass and seed compared to populations that were susceptible to those herbicides or combination of herbicides. Furthermore, aboveground shoot mass and seed production did not differ between treated and untreated plants.