To evaluate the performance of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in determining ceramic provenance, we analyzed 60 elements in 30 ceramic artifacts from six a priori groups from west Texas-southwestern New Mexico. Discriminant function analysis of the ICP-MS elemental data classified all members of the six a priori groups without error. In repeated analyses using 80% of the data as a training set, overall 75% of the withheld specimens were properly classified. Lead isotope ratios, also measured on the ICP-MS, provided an independent partial discrimination between the groups. The results of this study demonstrate that ICP-MS provides multi-element and lead isotopie characterization of archaeological ceramics suitable for provenance determination. ICP-MS is a rapid, in-house, and relatively inexpensive technology and thus is a reasonable alternative to neutron activation analysis (NAA) for compositional studies of archaeological ceramics.