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An electronic surveillance tool was developed for CAUTI and urinary catheter utilization based on the objective components of the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) definitions including fever, urinalysis, and urine culture. Results were compared to manual chart review by an infection preventionist (IP).
During January and February 2010, 204 positive urine cultures (≥103 colony-forming units/mL) were identified in 136 patients with indwelling urinary catheters during their hospitalization. The electronic surveillance tool detected 60 CAUTI cases and 7,098 catheter-days, yielding a CAUTI incidence rate of 8.5 per 1,000 catheter-days. Urinary catheter utilization ratios (Foley-days/patient-days) were: acute care units, 0.27 (3,637 of 13,229); intensive care units, 0.77 (3,461 of 4,469); and overall, 0.40 (7,098 of 17,698). In comparison, the IP identified 59 cases by manual review with a sensitivity of 51 of 59 (86.4%), specificity 136 of 145 (93.8%), and negative predictive value of 136 of 144 (94.4%). Fever was present in 54 of 59 (91.5%) of CAUTI cases identified manually, while subjective criteria were documented in only 6 of 59 (10.2%) infections. Agreement between the electronic surveillance and manual IP review was assessed as very good (k, 0.80; 95% confidence interval, 0.71–0.89).
We report an attempt at automating surveillance for CAUTI. With a high negative predictive value, the electronic tool allows for more efficient CAUTI surveillance and facilitates housewide trending of rates and catheter utilization. This approach should be validated in different patient populations.
To describe the development of a guideline for the management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) based on local microbiologic findings and to evaluate the impact of the guideline on antimicrobial use practices.
Retrospective comparison of antimicrobial use practices before and after implementation of the guideline.
Intensive care units at Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, Washington, a university-affiliated urban teaching hospital.
A total of 819 patients who received mechanical ventilation and who underwent quantitative bronchoscopy between July 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005, for suspected VAP.
Implementation of an evidence-based VAP guideline that focused on the use of quantitative bronchoscopy for diagnosis, administration of empirical antimicrobial therapy based on local microbiologic findings and resistance patterns, tailoring definitive antimicrobial therapy on the basis of culture results, and appropriate duration of therapy.
During the baseline period, 168 (46.7%) of 360 patients had quantitative cultures that met the diagnostic criteria for VAP, compared with 216 (47.1%) of 459 patients in the period after the guideline was implemented. The pathogens responsible for VAP remained similar between the 2 periods, except that the prevalence of VAP due to carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter species increased from 1.8% to 15.3% (P < .001), particularly in late-onset VAP. Compared with the baseline period, there was an improvement in antimicrobial use practices after implementation of the guideline: antimicrobial therapy was more frequently tailored on the basis of quantitative culture results (103 [61.3%] of 168 vs 150 [69.4%] of 216 patients; P = .034), there was an increase in the use of appropriate definitive therapy (135 [80.4%] of 168 vs 193 [89.4%] of 216 patients; P = .001), and there wasadecrease in the mean duration oftherapy (12.0vs 10.7days; P = .0014). The all-cause mortality rate was similar in the periods before and after the guideline was implemented (38 [22.6%] of 168 vs 46 [21.3%] of 216 patients; P = .756).
Implementation of a guideline for the management of VAP that incorporated the use of quantitative bronchoscopy, the use of empirical therapy based on local microbiologic findings, tailoring of therapy on the basis of culture results, and use of shortened durations of therapy led to significant improvements in antimicrobial use practices without adversely affecting the all-cause mortality rate.
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