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The effect of weight gain during mid- and late gestation in dairy heifers on performance at the start of first lactation was studied. In this experiment, 47 Holstein heifers with first calving at 36 months of age were used. The plane of nutrition aimed to have a high (900 g/d, H; n = 23) and low (500, L; n = 24) average daily gain (ADG) from the 4th month of gestation until 3 weeks before the expected day of calving, achieved by ad libitum intake of high quality pasture (H) or controlled intake of a total mixed ration (L). Body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), milking, and reproductive performances were recorded. Concentrations of plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), and urea were characterised at weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 of lactation. Milk fatty acid composition was determined at weeks 3 and 6. A total of 39 heifers successfully calved and completed first lactation. During feeding treatment the required ADG were achieved. BW and BCS were higher in H heifers at calving compared to L heifers: 707 vs. 640 kg, and 3.91 vs. 3.01 respectively. H heifers lost more weight, BCS and had lower feed intake during the beginning of first lactation (−0.8 kg DM/d/heifer over the first 4 weeks of lactation). Per day of lactation, H heifers produced significantly more milk (29.2 vs. 26.2 kg), fat (1.27 vs. 1.07 kg) and protein (0.84 vs. 0.477 kg) from 0 to 8 weeks of lactation. Concentrations of NEFA, glucose and BHBA were higher in H heifers compared to L heifers, but urea concentration was not affected. Concentration of preformed fatty acids in the milk (C16 and more) was higher. As a result, the calculated daily net energy balance during the first 8 weeks of lactation was −1.53 and −5.95 MJ for L and H heifers, respectively.
Among healthy volunteers in psychiatric brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research studies, the prevalence of incidentalomas can be as high as 34%, of which 10% show clinical significance. An incidentaloma is a lesion found by coincidence without clinical symptoms or suspicion. Like lesions and other types of accidental findings, it is found in healthy individuals recruited to take part in psychiatric studies. The prevalence of these accidental findings among specific psychiatric populations remains unknown. However, a precise understanding of cerebral neuroanatomy, neuroradiological expertise, and an appropriate choice of fMRI exploration sequences will increase the sensitivity of identifying these accidental findings and enable researchers to address their clinical relevance and nature. We present recommendations on how to appropriately inform patients or participants of the accidental findings. Additionally, we propose specific suggestions pertaining to the clinical research setting aimed for investigators and psychiatrists. Unlike current articles pertaining to incidentaloma, the current report provides a distinct focus on psychiatric issues and specific recommendations for studies involving psychiatric patients.
We review the present understanding of the interstellar dust contribution to the far-IR (λ > 100 μm) sky emission. We show how the contribution from the distinct ISM components (HI, H2, HII gas) are identified and characterized through spatial correlation with gas emission lines. We discuss the spectral energy distribution of the emission from cirrus dust associated with diffuse HI gas and from colder dust associated with molecular gas. We relate the drop in dust emission temperature from the diffuse interstellar medium to molecular gas to an evolution of dust affecting both the abundance of small dust grains and the far-IR emissivity of large grains.
We develop numerical methods for the simulation of laden-flows where particles interact with the carrier fluid through drag forces. Semi-Lagrangian techniques are presented to handle the Vlasov-type equation which governs the evolution of the particles. We discuss several options to treat the coupling with the hydrodynamic system describing the fluid phase, paying attention to strategies based on staggered discretizations of the fluid velocity.
High-mass stars usually form in giant molecular clouds (GMCs) as part of a young stellar cluster, but some isolated O/B stars are observed. What are the initial conditions that lead to the formation of these objects? The aim of this study is to measure the distribution and basic physical properties of the neutral gas associated with isolated intermediate- and high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs) in the Large Magellanic Cloud.
As part of the SAGE Spitzer Legacy program for the LMC, we have identified and confirmed YSOs using Spitzer IRAC photometry and IRS spectroscopy. By examining the spatial coincidence between the YSOs and 12CO(1–0) emission detected by the NANTEN mapping survey, we identified more than one hundred intermediate/massive YSOs in the LMC that appear to be isolated, i.e. not associated with CO emission. Deeper follow-up CO observations by our team with the higher resolution by Mopra Telescope (beam=30”) detected CO emission at the YSO positions for ~80% of the isolated LMC YSOs. We obtained ALMA data of some of the targets during Cycle 2. We targeted a small but representative (in terms of their association with neutral gas tracers) sample of the isolated high-mass YSOs that we have been studying in the LMC. All of our 12 targets are separated by more than 200 pc from known CO clouds. Our analysis of the ALMA data shows that a compact molecular cloud whose mass is a few thousand solar masses or smaller is associated with most of the YSOs.
The all-sky Planck catalogue of Galactic Cold Clumps (PGCC) allows an almost unbiased study of the early phases of star-formation in our Galaxy. Several thousand of the clumps have also distance estimates allowing a determination of mass and density. The nature of Planck cold clumps varies from IRDCs to tiny nearby cold clouds with masses ranging from one to several tens of thousands solar masses. Some of the clumps are embedded in GMCs, others are isolated. Some are close or even very close to OB associations, while others lay far from any UV luminous objects. The small scale clustering of nearby PGCCs was studied with the improved Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method identifying groups in 3D space, locating also massive cold cloud clusters eg. PGCCMST G210.6-19.5 in LDN 1641.
The present study investigated the impact of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 (LPR) supplementation on weight loss and maintenance in obese men and women over 24 weeks. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomised trial, each subject consumed two capsules per d of either a placebo or a LPR formulation (1·6 × 108 colony-forming units of LPR/capsule with oligofructose and inulin). Each group was submitted to moderate energy restriction for the first 12 weeks followed by 12 weeks of weight maintenance. Body weight and composition were measured at baseline, at week 12 and at week 24. The intention-to-treat analysis showed that after the first 12 weeks and after 24 weeks, mean weight loss was not significantly different between the LPR and placebo groups when all the subjects were considered. However, a significant treatment × sex interaction was observed. The mean weight loss in women in the LPR group was significantly higher than that in women in the placebo group (P= 0·02) after the first 12 weeks, whereas it was similar in men in the two groups (P= 0·53). Women in the LPR group continued to lose body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period, whereas opposite changes were observed in the placebo group. Changes in body weight and fat mass during the weight-maintenance period were similar in men in both the groups. LPR-induced weight loss in women was associated not only with significant reductions in fat mass and circulating leptin concentrations but also with the relative abundance of bacteria of the Lachnospiraceae family in faeces. The present study shows that the Lactobacillus rhamnosus CGMCC1.3724 formulation helps obese women to achieve sustainable weight loss.
Catherine Esnouf, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Marie Russel, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Nicolas Bricas, Centre de Co-opération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Paris
Regional and global food systems are constantly evolving, thus the contextual elements presented in Chapter 1 are likely to evolve, and food systems will be transformed. Because it is impossible to predict the food systems of tomorrow, we have adopted a foresight approach in order to try and understand possible future changes. Our approach, which is presented in the first part of this chapter, has therefore mainly been based on identifying the main drivers of the transformation of food systems. This work was the fruit of collective discussions by a multidisciplinary group made up of some 15 experts. The plurality of their views and their areas of competence allowed them to analyse the potential impacts of the different evolutions identified relative to the sustainability of food systems in terms of their nutritional, economic, social, cultural, environmental and territorial dimensions. This step of the analysis also enabled us to highlight a certain number of points at issue, which are presented in the second part of the chapter; this does not end with a presentation of different scenarios (as might have been expected), but concludes with the three transversal messages arising from debate by this workshop: issues linked to inequalities of access to food, territorial dynamics and the governance of food systems.
Food systems evolving under the effects of various factors
Through the identification of factors underlying the transformation of food systems, it appears clearly that some trends have already been identified (see, in particular, Chapter 1 on the context and the challenges of food systems, and the retrospective analysis described in Chapter 2). Nevertheless, these trends involve a certain number of questions and uncertainties, notably regarding the nature and degree of their potential effects. These uncertainties thus open the way to contrasting scenarios for food systems throughout the world (see Figure 9.1).
High-mass X-ray Binaries (HMXBs) are keys to study stellar remnants that are otherwise extremely faint and difficult to observe when isolated. Vela X-1 is a well-known eclipsing HMXB composed of a very massive neutron star orbiting a B0.5I supergiant with a period of 9 days. The supergiant wind is the main feeding material for the accreting neutron star, and its properties are of prime interest to understand the physics at stakes in the accretion process.
In order to characterize the geometry and physical properties of the dense wind at a scale of a few stellar radii, we obtained infrared interferometric observations of Vela X-1 in 2010 using the VLTI/AMBER instrument in the K band (2.2 μm), and in 2012 using the VLTI/PIONIER instrument in the H band (1.6 μm).
Although the apparent disk of the supergiant and the orbital separation of the two objects are beyond the present resolution limit of the VLTI, the K-band observations partially resolve the wind envelope on the two longest baselines. We were able to measure the radius of 265±82 R⊙ for the circumstellar wind at a temperature of 1300 K, assuming a distance of 1.9 kpc. The H-band observations do not resolve the system, and we were able to set an upper limit of 112 R⊙ for the envelope radius at a temperature of 1800 K.
Ras Ibn Hani peninsula, a wave-dominated tombolo (800 × 1000 m) on the Syrian coast, provides evidence for significant Holocene changes that can be linked to geological inheritance, rising post-glacial sea level, sediment supply and human impacts. Initial development of Ras Ibn Hani's coastal system began ~ 8000 years ago when shallow marine environments formed in a context of rising post-glacial sea level. Following relative sea-level stabilization ~ 6000 cal yr BP, beach facies trace the gradual formation of a wave-dominated sandbank fronted by a ~ 2300 × ~ 500 m palaeo-island whose environmental potentiality was attractive to Bronze Age societies. A particularly rapid phase of tombolo accretion is observed after ~ 3500 cal yr BP characterised by a two- to fourfold increase in sedimentation rates. This is consistent with (i) a pulse in sediment supply probably driven by Bronze Age/Iron Age soil erosion in local catchments, and (ii) positive feedback mechanisms linked to regionally attested neotectonics. Archaeological remains and radiocarbon datings confirm that the subaerial tombolo was probably in place by the Late Bronze Age. These data fit tightly with other eastern Mediterranean tombolo systems suggesting that there is a great deal of predictability to their geology and stratigraphy at the regional scale.
In this paper, we present CVD (Chemical Vapor Deposition) growth and passivation of tungsten (W) and titanium nitride (TiN) nanocrystals (NCs) on silicon dioxide and silicon nitride for use as charge trapping layer in floating gate memory devices. NCs are deposited in an 8 inches industrial CVD Centura tool. W and TiN are chosen for being compatible with MOSFET memory fabrication process. For protecting NCs from oxidation, a silicon shell is selectively deposited on them. Moreover, for a better passivation, TiN NCs are encapsulated in silicon nitride (Si3N4) in order to get rid of oxidation issues. After high temperature annealing (1050°C under N2 during 1 minute) XPS measurements point out that NCs are still metallic, which makes them good candidates for being used as charge trapping layer in floating gate memories.
With respect to Silicon-on-Diamond approaches as an alternative to SOI where diamond is used as the buried dielectric, we have in recent works demonstrated the feasibility of a novel approaches where the CVD diamond layer is grown on silicon using Bias Enhanced Nucleation (BEN) over large area substrates, then smoothed and assembled to successfully enable the fabrication of first prototypes of silicon-on-diamond substrates. The key novelty to those SOD substrates were that only a very thin box dielectric diamond layer is used (typically from 150 to 500nm thick), as required by the current SOI technology. However we had also observed that the silicon-diamond interface quality to be sensitive to the nature of the nucleation interface. Thus the current contribution here studies the chemical nature of various capping materials used to solve the issue of electrical defects in case of direct silicon-diamond interface and at the same time to enable the whole system to benefit from the high thermal conductivity of diamond when compared to other standard electrical insulating materials.
The strength of the association between intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired nosocomial infections (NIs) and mortality might differ according to the methodological approach taken.
TO assess the association between ICU-acquired NIs and mortality using the concept of population-attributable fraction (PAF) for patient deaths caused by ICU-acquired NIs in a large cohort of critically ill patients.
Eleven ICUs of a French university hospital.
We analyzed surveillance data on ICU-acquired NIs collected prospectively during the period from 1995 through 2003. The primary outcome was mortality from ICU-acquired NI stratified by site of infection. A matched-pair, case-control study was performed. Each patient who died before ICU discharge was defined as a case patient, and each patient who survived to ICU discharge was denned as a control patient. The PAF was calculated after adjustment for confounders by use of conditional logistic regression analysis.
Among 8,068 ICU patients, a total of 1,725 deceased patients were successfully matched with 1,725 control Patients. The adjusted PAF due to ICU-acquired NI for patients who died before ICU discharge was 14.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.4%—14.8%). Stratified by the type of infection, the PAF was 6.1% (95% CI, 5.7%–6.5%) for pulmonary infection, 3.2% (95% CI, 2.8%–3.5%) for central venous catheter infection, 1.7% (95% CI, 0.9%–2.5%) for bloodstream infection, and 0.0% (95% CI, –0.4% to 0.4%) for urinary tract infection.
ICU-acquired NI had an important effect on mortality. However, the statistical association between ICU-acquired NI and mortality tended to be less pronounced in findings based on the PAF than in study findings based on estimates of relative risk. Therefore, the choice of methods does matter when the burden of NI needs to be assessed.
The recycling of matter between the interstellar medium (ISM) and stars are key evolutionary drivers of a galaxy's baryonic matter. The Spitzer wavelengths provide a sensitive probe of circumstellar and interstellar dust and hence, allow us to study the physical processes of the ISM, the formation of new stars and the injection of mass by evolved stars and their relationships on the galaxy-wide scale of the LMC. Due to its proximity, favorable viewing angle, multi-wavelength information, and measured tidal interactions with the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC), the LMC is uniquely suited for surveying the agents of a galaxy's evolution (SAGE), the ISM and stars. The SAGE-LMC project is measuring these key transition points in the life cycle of baryonic matter in the LMC. Here we present a connective view of the preliminary quantities estimated from SAGE-LMC for the total mass of the ISM, the galaxy wide star formation rate and the current stellar mass loss return. For context, we compare these numbers to the LMC's stellar mass.
Fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with low CHD risk in the USA and Northern Europe. There is, in contrast, little information about these associations in other regions of Europe. The goal of the present study was to assess the relationship between frequency of fruit and vegetable intake and CHD risk in two European populations with contrasting cardiovascular incidence rates; France and Northern Ireland. The present prospective study was in men aged 50–59 years, free of CHD, who were recruited in France (n 5982) and Northern Ireland (n 2105). Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. Incident cases of acute coronary events and angina were recorded over a 5-year follow-up. During follow-up there was a total of 249 ischaemic events. After adjustment on education level, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption, employment status, BMI, blood pressure, serum total and HDL-cholesterol, the relative risks (RR) of acute coronary events were 0·67 (95% CI 0·44, 1·03) and 0·64 (95% CI 0·41, 0·99) in the 2nd and 3rd tertiles of citrus fruit consumption, respectively (P for trend <0·03). Similar results were observed in France and Northern Ireland. In contrast, the RR of acute coronary events for ‘other fruit’ consumption were 0·70 (95% CI 0·31, 1·56) and 0·52 (95% CI 0·24, 1·14) respectively in Northern Ireland (trend P<0·05) and 1·29 (95% CI 0·69, 2·4) and 1·15 (95% CI 0·68, 1·94) in France (trend P=0·5; interaction P<0·04). There was no evidence for any association between vegetable intake and total CHD events. In conclusion, frequency of citrus fruit, but not other fruits, intake is associated with lower rates of acute coronary events in both France and Northern Ireland, suggesting that geographical or related factors might affect the relationship between fruit consumption and CHD risk.
The aim of our study was to develop and validate a simple surgical model in the sheep which allows control of the gas composition of the blood supplying the carotid and central chemosensitive area independently of the rest of the body. This approach was made possible due to the specific features of the cranial circulation in the sheep. An extracorporeal circuit, consisting of a pump and a gas exchanger, was placed at the level of the two common carotid arteries to create a pressure gradient between the carotid and the systemic systems and to reverse blood flow in the vertebral vessels via the occipital arteries. When a pressure gradient of about 40 Torr was created between the systemic and carotid circulation, we found that no blood could reach the carotid bodies and the medulla without passing though the extracorporeal circulation. This was established (1) by measuring vertebral blood flow; and (2) by injecting either a coloured suspension or particles labelled with 99m*Tc into the systemic or the carotid circulation. The slope of the relationship between minute ventilation (V˙E) and systemic arterial PCO2 (Pa,CO2) during high CO2 inhalation in seven hyperoxic vagotomised and anaesthetised sheep was dramatically reduced, but remained above zero, when Pa,CO2 was maintained constant in the cephalic circuit (0.11 ± 0.15 vs. 0.70 ± 0.35 l min-1 Torr-1 for the control tests). This residual V˙E response to CO2 inhalation remains to be explained since it could not be accounted for by any of the chemical or circulatory changes occurring in the cephalic circulation. Nevertheless, this preparation provides an easy method of maintaining chemical and circulatory homeostasis at the chemoreceptor level. Experimental Physiology (2003) 88.5, 581-594.
Among the different stages in the protozoan Perkinsus marinus life cycle, the trophozoite stage is known to be the most infective stage in marine molluscs. To develop a direct method for in vitro studies of P. marinus proliferation under various environmental conditions, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for this pathogen were produced. Inbred strains of mice BALB/c were immunised with a trophozoite prepared from cloned isolate Perkinsus 1 cultured on JLODRP1 medium. The mouse polyclonal antiserum showing the highest antibody titre for pathogen trophozoites was chosen for lymphocyte hybridisation. The screening of positive hybridoma by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) revealed two probes (17B2D5 and 19G3H6) detecting P. marinus trophozoites and their protein lysates but also trophozoites from P. atlanticus. These MAbs belonged to the immunoglobulin IgG1 subclass. Their binding specificity was investigated by ELISA and fluorescein (FITC) methods. Both immunoreacted with trophozoite stage as well as hypnospore and zoospore stages of P. marinus, but neither with hemolymph and tissues of oysters, Crassostrea gigas and C. virginica, nor with parasites, Bonamia ostreae and Marteilia refringens. A competitive ELISA method was developed, using 17B2D5 MAb to evaluate parasite multiplication in culture media and to estimate the parasite burdens from infected oysters. This method is sensitive enough to detect 103 trophozoites in 50 μL assay sample.
Objectives: In a context where sleep laboratories are overwhelmed by a growing demand to diagnose obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), efficient substitutive solutions to in-laboratory polysomnography should be found. To compare the effectiveness and costs of home unattended polysomnography (Hpsg) and telemonitored polysomnography (TMpsg), a cost minimization study was performed.
Methods: In a crossover trial, 99 patients underwent on two consecutive nights TMpsg and Hpsg according to a randomized order. A legibility recording criterion was retained to measure effectiveness. A microcosting study of TMpsg and Hpsg was performed. The risks to adopt home strategy or telemonitored strategy, according to different scenario chosen to reach the diagnosis in case of failure of Hpsg or TMpsg, were analyzed.
Results: The recording was considered to be ineffective in 11.2% of TMpsg (95% CI, 4.9–17.4) and in 23.4% (95% CI, 19.12–27.68) of Hpsg. The effectiveness differential was 12.2% (95% CI, 1.8–22.6) (p = .02). Assuming that in case of failure PSGs would be re-realized in the same condition to reach the diagnosis, then TMpsg could be selected if Hc/TMc (cost of Hpsg/cost of TMpsg) > 0.97; Hpsg could be selected if Hc/TMc < 0.76. If 0.76 ≤ Hc/TMc ≤ 0.97, the choice of TMpsg would be ambiguous. TMc was estimated to be $244, while Hc was $153 (Hc/TMc = 0.63).
Conclusion: Unless some specific geographical situations generate significant transport costs, the implementation of a strategy based on unattended polysomnography at home is cost-saving compared to a telemonitoring strategy.