Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been reported to increase following weight loss. Moreover, both weight loss and higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index (β-cell function). Data from two prospective lifestyle modification studies had been combined. Following a lifestyle-modifying weight loss intervention for 1 year, eighty-four men and women with prediabetes and a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 were divided based on weight loss at 1 year: < 5 % (non-responders, n 56) and ≥ 5 % (responders, n 28). The association between the change in serum 25(OH)D concentration and changes in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) and Matsuda), insulin secretion (AUC of C-peptide) and disposition index after adjustment for weight loss was examined. Participants in the responders' group lost on average 9·5 % of their weight when compared with non-responders who lost only 0·8 % of weight. Weight loss in responders resulted in improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S, P= 0·0003) and disposition index (P= 0·02); however, insulin secretion remained unchanged. The rise in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss in responders was significantly higher than that in non-responders (8·9 (sd 12·5) v. 3·6 (sd 10·7) nmol/l, P= 0·05). However, it had not been associated with amelioration of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, even after adjustment for weight loss and several confounders. In conclusion, the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss does not contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity or β-cell function.