In this article Jean-Guy Belley examines the dichotomy between individuals and organizations, considered explicitly in connection with the development of the idea of legal pluralism. This idea—not the concept, which came later—had appeared in the early twentieth century, thanks to militant jurists who challenged the dominance of formal positivism and had an interest in legal sociology and anthropology. Their approach fitted in with legal realism (broadly understood), but specifically questioned the central role of the state in the production of law. That initial form of legal pluralism fuelled the renewal of legal thinking and fostered the development of the sociology of law, but it did not lastingly challenge the dominant status of positivism among jurists. In contrast, the “new legal pluralism” that has been rapidly growing in the last decades presents itself as new legal orthodoxy: paradoxically, the idea of legal pluralism, which originally illustrated the quest for intellectual emancipation from the formalist straitjacket (perhaps even emancipation of social life vis-à-vis the state), has turned into a new orthodoxy in the second era of modernity. That legal doctrine is clearly in harmony with the impersonal domination of private legal orders (especially of large economic organizations) over contemporary society.