To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The link between childhood obesity and both television viewing and television advertising have previously been examined. We sought to investigate the frequency and type of food and beverage placements in children-specific television broadcasts and, in particular, differences between programme genres.
Content of five weekdays of children-specific television broadcasting on both UK (BBC) and Irish (RTE) television channels was summarized. Food and beverage placements were coded based on type of product, product placement, product use and characters involved. A comparison was made between different programme genres: animated, cartoon, child-specific, film, quiz, tween and young persons’ programming.
A total of 1155 (BBC=450; RTE=705) cues were recorded giving a cue every 4·2 min, an average of 12·3 s/cue. The genre with most cues recorded was cartoon programming (30·8 %). For the majority of genres, cues related to sweet snacks (range 1·8–23·3 %) and sweets/candy (range 3·6–25·8 %) featured highly. Fast-food (18·0 %) and sugar-sweetened beverage (42·3 %) cues were observed in a high proportion of tween programming. Celebratory/social motivation factors (range 10–40 %) were most common across all genres while there were low proportions of cues based on reward, punishment or health-related motivating factors.
The study provides evidence for the prominence of energy-dense/nutrient-poor foods and beverages in children’s programming. Of particular interest is the high prevalence of fast-food and sugar-sweetened beverage cues associated with tween programming. These results further emphasize the need for programme makers to provide a healthier image of foods and beverages in children’s television.
Delirium affects all higher cortical functions supporting complex information processing consistent with widespread neural network impairment. We evaluated the relative prominence of delirium symptoms throughout episodes to assess whether impaired consciousness is selectively affecting certain brain functions at different timepoints.
Twice-weekly assessments of 100 consecutive patients with DSM-IV delirium in a palliative care unit used the Delirium Rating Scale Revised-98 (DRS-R98) and Cognitive Test for Delirium (CTD). A mixed-effects model was employed to estimate changes in severity of individual symptoms over time.
Mean age = 7 0.2 ± 10.5 years, 51% were male, and 27 had a comorbid dementia. A total of 323 assessments (range 2–9 per case) were conducted, but up to 6 are reported herein. Frequency and severity of individual DRS-R98 symptoms was very consistent over time even though the majority of patients (80%) experienced fluctuation in symptom severity over the course of hours or minutes. Over time, DRS-R98 items for attention (88–100%), sleep–wake cycle disturbance (90–100%), and any motor disturbance (87–100%), and CTD attention and vigilance were most frequently and consistently impaired. Mixed-effects regression modeling identified only very small magnitudes of change in individual symptoms over time, including the three core domains.
Significance of results:
Attention is disproportionately impaired during the entire episode of delirium, consistent with thalamic dysfunction underlying both an impaired state of consciousness and well-known EEG slowing. All individual symptoms and three core domains remain relatively stable despite small fluctuations in symptom severity for a given day, which supports a consistent state of impaired higher cortical functions throughout an episode of delirium.
The behavioural impact of an imposed bout of prolonged sitting is yet to be investigated in the paediatric population. The objective of the present study was to determine the acute effect of prolonged sitting on ad libitum food intake and spontaneous physical activity (PA) levels in healthy children and youth. A total of twenty healthy youth (twelve males and eight females) aged 10–14 years, with a mean BMI of 18·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, were exposed to three experimental conditions in a random order: (1) a day of uninterrupted sitting (Sedentary); (2) a day of sitting interrupted with a 2 min light-intensity walk break every 20 min (Breaks); (3) a day of sitting interrupted with a 2 min light-intensity walk break every 20 min as well as 2 × 20 min of moderate-intensity PA (Breaks+PA). Food intake (ad libitum buffet meal) and PA (accelerometry for 24 h) were assessed following exposure to each experimental condition. Despite significant differences in sedentary behaviour and activity levels during the three in-laboratory sessions (all P< 0·01), we did not observe any differences in ad libitum food intake immediately following exposure to each experimental condition or any changes in the levels of sedentary behaviour or PA in the 24 h following exposure to each experimental condition (all P>0·25). These findings suggest that children and youth may not compensate for an imposed bout of sedentary behaviour by reducing subsequent food intake or increasing PA levels.
To investigate the relationship between cognitive and non-cognitive
delirium symptoms and test the primacy of inattention in delirium.
People with delirium (n=100) were assessed using the
Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98(DRS-R98)and Cognitive Test for Delirium
Sleep-wake cycle abnormalities and inattention were most frequent, while
disorientation was the least frequent cognitive deficit. Patients with
psychosis had either perceptual disturbances or delusions but not both.
Neither delusions nor hallucinations were associated with cognitive
impairments. Inattention was associated with severity of other cognitive
disturbances but not with non-cognitive items. CTD comprehension
correlated most closely with non-cognitive features of delirium.
Delirium phenomenology is consistent with broad dysfunction of higher
cortical centres, characterised in particular by inattention and
sleep-wake cycle disturbance. Attention and comprehension together are
the cognitive items that best account for the syndrome of delirium.
Psychosis in delirium differs from that in functional psychoses.
Prescribing in everyday practice frequently deviates from evidence-based guidelines. Previous work compared practice in a community mental health service with evidence-based guidelines and identified factors related to suboptimal prescribing. This study reports the impact of a multifaceted intervention on prescribing practice. A Prescribing Practice Quality (PPQ) score was generated from six key aspects of prescribing at initial assessment and again 1 year later after an intervention to reduce suboptimal prescribing practices.
A total of 264 patients were attending the service at both the initial and follow-up phase and were thus exposed to the prescribing intervention. In this population, PPQ scores were significantly lower at follow-up (0.96 v. 0.67, P<0.001). Improved prescribing practice was predicted by receipt of adjunctive supportive inputs, such as anxiety management (P=0.003).
Similarly, mean PPQ scores substantially decreased when the total patient population was considered at each time point (0.75 in 2001 and 0.52 in 2002). These results suggest a reduction in both the initiation and continuation of suboptimal practices.
Prescribing in real-world settings can be improved by interventions that target multiple aspects of service activity. The provision of supportive inputs is a key factor in improving practice.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.