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To examine the associations between near and distant visual acuity and biomarkers of Hg, Pb, n-3 fatty acids and Se from the local diet of fish-eating communities of the Tapajós River in the Brazilian Amazon.
Visuo-ocular health and biomarkers of Hg (hair, whole blood, plasma), Pb (whole blood), Se (whole blood and plasma) and n-3 fatty acids (plasma total phospholipids) were assessed in a cross-sectional study.
Lower Tapajós River Basin (State of Pará, Brazil), May to July 2006.
Two hundred and forty-three adults (≥15 years) without diagnosed age-related cataracts or ocular pathologies.
Near visual acuity was negatively associated with hair Hg and positively associated with %DHA, with a highly significant Log Hg × age interaction term. Stratifying for age showed that while young people presented good acuity, for those aged ≥40 years, clinical presbyopia was associated with hair Hg ≥ 15 μg/g (OR = 3·93, 95 % CI 1·25, 14·18) and %DHA (OR = 0·37, 95 % CI 0·11, 1·11). A similar age-related pattern was observed for distant visual acuity in relation to blood Pb, but the evidence was weaker.
These findings suggest that Hg and Pb may affect visual acuity in older persons, while DHA appears to be protective for near visual acuity loss. In this population, with little access to eye care, diet may have an important influence on visuo-ocular ageing.
The paper is built around a nonexhaustive review of the literature on the role of grain boundaries in reactive phase formation. Examples are chosen to illustrate these effects in silicide and oxide growths, and later on in metal-metal interactions. A short section deals with the effect of grain boundaries and grain boundary adsorption of impurities on the kinetics of growth and on the morphology of the growing layer. Some attempts at understanding the mechanisms of phase growth from the tracking of isotopes are briefly analyzed.
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