The monotypic ostracode Entomozoe (pro Entomis) (Superorder Myodocopa) from the Silurian of Scotland, type genus of the Entomozoidae, is revised for the first time since being established in 1861. Based on the type and new collections of Entomozoe tuberosa (Jones, 1861), the genus shows affinity to bolbozoid myodocopes rather than to forms hitherto universally considered as ‘typical’ entomozoid myodocopes. The families Entomozoidae and Bolbozoidae are considered synonymous. In the interests of stability of nomenclature, in particular to preserve the traditionally understood usage of the taxon Entomozoidae, a case must be made to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature to set aside any previous designations and to establish a new type-species for Entomozoe.
Entomozoe, from the Llandovery Series, is the earliest known myodocope in the fossil record. It occurs as part of a low diversity, shallow water, nearshore assemblage. In contrast to other, but younger, Silurian bolbozoid myodocopes, it is probably a benthic form. The differences in the anterior shell morphology of Silurian bolbozoid taxa possibly reflect changes both in soft-part morphology and from benthic to pelagic lifestyles within the group.
Both bolbozoid and ‘entomozoid’ myodocopes are assigned to the Order Myodocopida rather than to the Order Halocypridida, though the taxonomic affinity of the ‘entomozoids’ is, at best, uncertain.