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Neuroimaging studies of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD) have identified structural and functional variations which might reflect inheritable features in alcohol-naïve relatives of AUD individuals (FH+) compared to controls having no such family history (FH-). However, prior research did not simultaneously account for childhood maltreatment, any clinically significant disorder and maternal AUD. Therefore, we mainly aimed to investigate the brain structure and reward-related neural activations (fMRI), using whole-brain analysis in FH+ young adults with no prevalent confounders.
46 FH+ and 45 FH- male and female participants had no severe childhood maltreatment exposure, neither any psychiatric disorder or AUD, nor a prenatal exposure to maternal AUD. We used a 3 T MRI coupled with a whole brain voxel-based method to compare between groups the grey matter volumes and activations in response to big versus small wins during a Monetary Incentive Delay task. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire score was used as confounding variable in the analyses to account for the remaining variance between groups.
Compared to FH- controls, FH+ participants had smaller grey matter volumes in the frontal and cingulate regions as well as in the bilateral nucleus accumbens and right insula. The FH+ participants’ fMRI datasets denoted a blunted activation in the middle cingulum with respect to FH- controls’ during the processing of reward magnitude, and a greater activation in the anterior cingulum in response to anticipation of a small win.
Family history of alcohol use disorder is linked to structural and functional variations including brain regions involved in reward processes.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been reported to increase following weight loss. Moreover, both weight loss and higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index (β-cell function). Data from two prospective lifestyle modification studies had been combined. Following a lifestyle-modifying weight loss intervention for 1 year, eighty-four men and women with prediabetes and a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 were divided based on weight loss at 1 year: < 5 % (non-responders, n 56) and ≥ 5 % (responders, n 28). The association between the change in serum 25(OH)D concentration and changes in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) and Matsuda), insulin secretion (AUC of C-peptide) and disposition index after adjustment for weight loss was examined. Participants in the responders' group lost on average 9·5 % of their weight when compared with non-responders who lost only 0·8 % of weight. Weight loss in responders resulted in improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S, P= 0·0003) and disposition index (P= 0·02); however, insulin secretion remained unchanged. The rise in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss in responders was significantly higher than that in non-responders (8·9 (sd 12·5) v. 3·6 (sd 10·7) nmol/l, P= 0·05). However, it had not been associated with amelioration of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, even after adjustment for weight loss and several confounders. In conclusion, the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss does not contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity or β-cell function.
An oligothiophene having a donor-acceptor-donor chromophore with hydrogen bonding groups is used as electron donor in planar heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells. We focus on the contact between the anode and the oligothiophene. Different anode buffer layers (ABLs) have been used, MoO3 and CuI, alone or coupled with MoO3. The thicknesses were 4 nm and 3 nm for MoO3 and CuI respectively. It is shown that the ABL improves the cells performances. The best results are achieved with the couple MoO3/CuI through an increase of the open circuit voltage and short circuit current. The optical absorption, the surface roughness and the organic film conductivity depend on the ABL. The conductivity of the oligothiophene film is one order of magnitude higher when the ABL is a CuI film. The influence of the ABL can be explained partly by the fact that it raises the anode work function. Nevertheless, the study of the structures ITO/ABL/oligothiophene shows that each ABL exhibits specific advantages and disadvantages. Therefore the couple MoO3/CuI allows summing up the advantages of both ABLs, MoO3 allows a very good band matching and avoids too high leakage current, while CuI allows achieving high Jsc thanks to its effect on the TTB conductivity.
The Polar Large Telescope (PLT) project is primarily aimed at undertaking large, wide band synoptic astronomical surveys in the infrared in order to provide critical data to the forthcoming generation of observational facilities such as ALMA, JWST, LSST and the E–ELT, and to complement the observations obtained with them. Sensitive thermal IR surveys beyond 2.3 μm cannot be carried out from any existing ground based observatory and the Antarctic Plateau is the only place on the ground where it can be envisaged, thanks to its unique atmospheric and environmental properties, such as the turbulence profile (image quality), the low opacity and the reduced thermal background emission of the sky. These unique conditions enable high angular resolution wide field surveys in the near thermal infrared (2.3–5 μm). This spectral range is particularly well suited to tackling key astrophysical questions such as: i) investigating the nature of the distant universe, the first generation of stars and the latest stages of stellar evolution, ii) understanding transient phenomena such as gamma ray-bursts and Type Ia supernovae, iii) increasing our knowledge of extra-solar planets. Further instruments may broaden the expected science outcomes of such a 2–4 m class telescope especially for the characterization of galaxies at very large distance to provide new clues in the mysteries of dark matter and energy. Efforts will be made to merge this project with other comparable projects within an international consortium.
Convergence occurs in war and bargaining models as uninformed rivals discover their opponent's type by fighting and making calibrated offers that only the weaker party would accept. Fighting ends with the compromise that reveals the other side's type. This article shows that, if the protagonists are free to fight and bargain in the time continuum, they no longer make increasing concessions in an attempt to end the war promptly and on fair terms. Instead, the rivals stand firm on extreme bargaining positions, fighting it out in the hope that the other side will give in, until much of the war has been fought. Despite ongoing resolution of uncertainty by virtue of time passing, the rivals choose not to try to narrow their differences by negotiating.
The 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center (WTC) resulted in thousands of deaths and injuries. Research on previous bombings and explosions has shown that head injuries, including traumatic brain injuries (TBIs), are among the most common injuries.
The objective of this study was to identify diagnosed and undiagnosed (undetected) TBIs among persons hospitalized in New York City following the 11 September 2001 WTC attacks.
The medical records of persons admitted to 36 hospitals in New York City with injuries or illnesses related to the WTC attacks were abstracted for signs and symptoms of TBIs. Diagnosed TBIs were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification diagnosis codes. Undiagnosed TBIs were identified by an adjudication team of TBI experts that reviewed the abstracted medical record information. Persons with an undiagnosed TBI were contacted and informed of the diagnosis of potential undetected injury.
A total of 282 records were abstracted. Fourteen cases of diagnosed TBIs and 21 cases of undiagnosed TBIs were identified for a total of 35 TBI cases (12% of all of the abstracted records). The leading cause of TBI was being hit by falling debris (22 cases). One-third of the TBIs (13 cases) occurred among rescue workers.More than three years after the event, four out of six persons (66.67%) with an undiagnosed TBI who were contacted reported they currently were experiencing symptoms consistent with a TBI.
Not all of the TBIs among hospitalized survivors of the WTC attacks were diagnosed at the time of acute injury care. Some persons with undiagnosed TBIs reported problems that may have resulted from these TBIs three years after the event. For hospitalized survivors of mass-casualty incidents, additional in-hospital, clinical surveys could help improve pre-discharge TBI diagnosis and provide the opportunity to link patients to appropriate outpatient services. The use and adequacy of head protection for rescue workers deserves re-evaluation.
Why would fully informed, rational actors fight over possession of a valued asset when they could negotiate a settlement in peace? Our explanation of the decision to fight highlights the incentives that are present when the defender holds a valued asset coveted by the challenger. The defender receives utility from possession of the contested asset and sees any compromise as a loss that is lower if postponed. The challenger, instead, sees any compromise as a gain that is more valuable if reached earlier. Faced with the defender's vested interest in the status quo, the challenger needs to threaten war and may have no choice but to implement the threat to force a settlement. For the defender, the threat of war is a deterrent that might incite the challenger to back down. In the perfect equilibria that we describe, the players' ability to threaten each other credibly allows them to maintain incompatible bargaining positions instead of helping them narrow their differences. But the very credibility of these threats leads our rivals to engage in what can become lengthy protracted wars.
This paper develops a model of rational behavior that is found to be compatible with the evolution of China-U.S. relations from the early 1970s to the late 1980s. The authors introduce countervailing strategies that broaden our understanding of what is rational in a game-theoretic context. Countervailing behavior accommodates inertia and delay, as well as reactivity, and is shown to be involved in every equilibrium strategy. The terms of the interaction between the United States and China are identified in light of a countervailing model, and the payoff structure that supports the observed dynamic interaction is inferred. Prior to 1979, which marks the inception of Chinas open-door policy, the payoff structure found conforms to a little-known mixed-motive game, whereas the 1980s are characterized by a Prisoner's Dilemma. In the 1980s rational play involves positive reactivity on the part of each country, while prior to 1979 rational behavior on the part of the U.S. takes the form of an inverse response to Chinese initiatives, a behavior that draws its rationality from its ability to move China to a more cooperative stance despite a Deadlock-type payoff structure.
The relationships among ethnicity, demographics, smoking and drinking habits, and maternal and infant health were examined in a sample of 171 low-income and low-risk Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic families. Few ethnic differences in the health status of the mothers and their infants emerged when ethnic differences were directly examined; however, a latent variable analysis indicated that ethnicity was related to smoking and drinking habits such that Caucasian mothers were more likely to smoke and drink. Smoking and drinking, in turn, led to smaller infant size at birth. Demographic differences found in level of income, education, and family composition suggest that low-income families are not necessarily homogeneous.
Prenons comme point de départ de notre recherche l'affirmation du P. G. Fessard selon laquelle il n'y a pas de place pour «l'historique» dans le thomisme. Si nous nous en rapportons en effet à la Métaphysique d'Aristote commentée par S. Thomas, il semblerait n'y avoir que deux grandes catégories d'être: l'être de raison étudié par la logique, et l'être naturel, sujet de la philosophie. Où situer alors, dans une telle perspective, l'être historique, terre d'élection de la pensée moderne, selon l'expression du P. Fessard? Nulle part … c'est-à-dire que cet horizon demeure étranger à un tel type de philosophie.
Nous abordons en ce moment un aspect de l'ceuvre teilhardienne qui a suscité et suscite encore de nombreuses discussions. D'une part, Teilhard déclare à plusieurs reprises vouloir s'en tenir à un point de vue strictement scientifique:
Pour être correctement compris, le livre que je présente ici demande à ^tre lu, non pas comme un ouvrage métaphysique, encore moins comme une sorte d'essai théologique, mais uniquement et exclusivement comme un mémoire scientifique (P.H., p. 21).
Mon intention n'est pas de proposer ici un programme d'action ni un manifeste de pensée. Je voudrais seulement tenter de déterminer quel devrait être le rôle de la philosophie au Canada: sa place dans l'édification de cet immense pays qui est le nôtre, sa fonction dans la préparation et le développement d'une culture authentiquement canadienne.