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Sex-related differences in psychopathology are known phenomena, with externalizing and internalizing symptoms typically more common in boys and girls, respectively. However, the neural correlates of these sex-by-psychopathology interactions are underinvestigated, particularly in adolescence.
Participants were 14 years of age and part of the IMAGEN study, a large (N = 1526) community-based sample. To test for sex-by-psychopathology interactions in structural grey matter volume (GMV), we used whole-brain, voxel-wise neuroimaging analyses based on robust non-parametric methods. Psychopathological symptom data were derived from the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ).
We found a sex-by-hyperactivity/inattention interaction in four brain clusters: right temporoparietal-opercular region (p < 0.01, Cohen's d = −0.24), bilateral anterior and mid-cingulum (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.18), right cerebellum and fusiform (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.20) and left frontal superior and middle gyri (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = −0.26). Higher symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention were associated with lower GMV in all four brain clusters in boys, and with higher GMV in the temporoparietal-opercular and cerebellar-fusiform clusters in girls.
Using a large, sex-balanced and community-based sample, our study lends support to the idea that externalizing symptoms of hyperactivity/inattention may be associated with different neural structures in male and female adolescents. The brain regions we report have been associated with a myriad of important cognitive functions, in particular, attention, cognitive and motor control, and timing, that are potentially relevant to understand the behavioural manifestations of hyperactive and inattentive symptoms. This study highlights the importance of considering sex in our efforts to uncover mechanisms underlying psychopathology during adolescence.
Project management expertise is employed across many professional sectors, including clinical research organizations, to ensure that efforts undertaken by the organization are completed on time and according to specifications and are capable of achieving the needed impact. Increasingly, project leaders (PLs) who possess this expertise are being employed in academic settings to support clinical and preclinical translational research team science. Duke University’s clinical and translational science enterprise has been an early adopter of project management to support clinical and preclinical programs. We review the history and evolution of project management and the PL role at Duke, examine case studies that illustrate their growing value to our academic research environment, and address challenges and solutions to employing project management in academia. Furthermore, we describe the critical role project leadership plays in accelerating and increasing the success of translational team science and team approaches frequently required for systems biology and “big data” scientific studies. Finally, we discuss perspectives from Duke project leadership professionals regarding the training needs and requirements for PLs working in academic clinical and translational science research settings.
Bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs), particularly Au/Pd and Au/Pt, have attracted extensive attention due to their wide-spread application in catalysis, optoelectronics and energy recuperation. Here we have attempted the fabrication of Au/Pt and Au/Pd bimetallic NPs by an energy-efficient eco-friendly microwave methodology. The microwave-assisted reactions enable considerably large product yields over conventional colloidal methods due to (a) almost two-fold increased reaction kinetics, (b) localized superheating at reaction sites and rapid rise of initial temperature. Au NPs (sizes 20 ± 3 nm) are fabricated in the first step followed by the reduction of [PdCl2(NH3)2] or [K2PtCl6]in tetraethylene glycol at 180 ºC for 2 min. Controlling and understanding the atomic structure and elemental distributions of these NPs are crucial for their optimized performances. So, we address the fundamental question of the most likely arrangement of Au and Pd or Pt atoms in these bimetallic NPs prepared under similar conditions by complementary characterizations using UV-Vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The UV-Vis spectroscopy reveals the formation of an alloy shell. The extent of depression of the plasmon peak of Au and its blue-shift reveals substantial deposition of Pd atoms on an Au core and significant alloying in comparison to Au/Pt NPs. XRD reveals the gradual shift of the diffraction peak from the position of Au to the position of Pd or Pt with change in composition. XRD supports the formation of a thick alloy shell in these NPs. However, the TEM images reveal a very interesting result. With increase in Pt concentration, the size of the dispersed NPs decreases from 20 ± 3 nm to about 16 nm (± 1 nm) and there is evolution of a bimodal particle size distribution with small particles about 1-2 nm diameters. On the contrary, with increasing Pd concentration, the particle size of the dispersed particles increases to about 32 nm (± 1 nm). This discrepancy of particle size evolution for the two systems arises due to the differences in surface energies (Pt > Pd > Au atoms). Pt atoms tend to diffuse towards the core with the formation of Au nano-islands which eventually segregates leading to a reduction in particle size and bimodal distribution. At higher concentration of Pt, Pt and Au atoms tend to nucleate separately also contribute to the bimodal distribution. While for Au/Pd NPs, we have an Au core with an alloyed shell having higher Pd concentration. This is further supported by experimental evidence by selective etching and dissolution of Au by potassium-iodide solution. Furthermore, the Au/Pd bimetallic NPs are found to possess better catalytic activities in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol than Au/Pt and monometallic NPs.
The Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative (DNDi) has defined and implemented an early discovery strategy over the last few years, in fitting with its virtual R&D business model. This strategy relies on a medium- to high-throughput phenotypic assay platform to expedite the screening of compound libraries accessed through its collaborations with partners from the pharmaceutical industry. We review the pragmatic approaches used to select compound libraries for screening against kinetoplastids, taking into account screening capacity. The advantages, limitations and current achievements in identifying new quality series for further development into preclinical candidates are critically discussed, together with attractive new approaches currently under investigation.
Caves and rockshelters are a key component of the archaeological record but are often regarded as natural places conveniently exploited by human communities. Archaeomorphological study shows however that they are not inert spaces but have frequently been modified by human action, sometimes in ways that imply a strong symbolic significance. In this paper the concept of ‘aménagement’, the re-shaping of a material space or of elements within it, is applied to Chauvet Cave in France and Nawarla Gabarnmang rockshelter in Australia. Deep within Chauvet Cave, fallen blocks were moved into position to augment the natural structure known as The Cactus, while at Nawarla Gabarnmang, blocks were removed from the ceiling and supporting pillars removed and discarded down the talus slope. These are hence not ‘natural’ places, but modified and socially constructed.
The Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) will give us an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the transient sky at radio wavelengths. In this paper we present VAST, an ASKAP survey for Variables and Slow Transients. VAST will exploit the wide-field survey capabilities of ASKAP to enable the discovery and investigation of variable and transient phenomena from the local to the cosmological, including flare stars, intermittent pulsars, X-ray binaries, magnetars, extreme scattering events, interstellar scintillation, radio supernovae, and orphan afterglows of gamma-ray bursts. In addition, it will allow us to probe unexplored regions of parameter space where new classes of transient sources may be detected. In this paper we review the known radio transient and variable populations and the current results from blind radio surveys. We outline a comprehensive program based on a multi-tiered survey strategy to characterise the radio transient sky through detection and monitoring of transient and variable sources on the ASKAP imaging timescales of 5 s and greater. We also present an analysis of the expected source populations that we will be able to detect with VAST.