To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has become a vital part of the armamentarium of the surgeon. VATS is associated with shorter length of hospital stay and less use of pain medication than thoracotomy in the treatment of pneumothorax and minor resections. General anesthesia is usually induced with an intravenous agent such as propofol or thiopentone and maintained with an inhalational agent such as isoflurane in an air/oxygen mixture. The isolation and division of the bronchi and pulmonary blood vessels require more accurate and extensive dissection with VATS than conventional surgery. Thoracoscopic lobectomy can be oncologically equal to conventional open procedures with an experienced surgeon and have similar survival for early stage non-small cell lung cancer. Conversion to a thoracotomy is sometimes required if there is an unexpected change in the patient's condition such as chest wall invasion or the need for a sleeve resection.