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The Desert Migrations Project is a new interdisciplinary and multi-dimensional collaborative project between the Society for Libyan Studies and the Department of Antiquities. The geographical focus of the study is the Fazzan region of southwest Libya and in thematic terms we aim to address the theme of migration in the broadest sense, encompassing the movement of people, ideas/knowledge and material culture into and out of Fazzan, along with evidence of shifting climatic and ecological boundaries over time. The report describes the principal sub-strands of the project's first season in January 2007, with some account of research questions, methods employed and some preliminary results. Three main sub-projects are reported on. The first concerns the improved understanding of long-term climatic and environmental changes derived from a detailed palaeoenvironmental study of palaeolake sediments. This geo-science work runs alongside and feeds directly into both archaeological sub-projects, the first relating to prehistoric activity and mobility around and between a series of palaeolakes during wetter climatic cycles; the second to the excavation of burials in the Wadi al-Ajal, exploring the changing relationship between material culture, identity and ethnicity across time, from prehistory to the early Islamic period (the span of the main cemetery zones). In addition, some rock art research and a survey of historic period sites was undertaken in the Wadi ash-Shati and Ubari sand sea.
Vascular pathology and its associated clinical entities have a broad impact on the health of older persons. Specifically, cardiovasculardisease and stroke account for the majority of morbidity and mortality in individuals over the age of 65 (1). Other conditions related to vascular pathology, such as erectile dysfunction (ED) and impaired wound healing, also have a significant effect on the lives of older persons. Understanding the changes in the vasculature that occur with aging may provide insights into many disorders that affect the elderly.
Aging is associated with multiple changes in endothelial cell (EC) function that limit the capacity of older blood vessels to dynamically regulate and restore blood flow (Table 152–1). Although older persons have higher vascular risk factor profiles as a result of cumulative environmental exposures (e.g., smoking) and an increased prevalence of endogenous pathological conditions (e.g., diabetes and hyperlipidemia), inherent age-related changes in endothelial function contribute significantly to subsequent vascular dysfunction. Accordingly, it is important to emphasize that, although many factors have a role in the development of EC dysfunction, the normal aging process is itself an independent risk factor for developing vascular diseases. The overall goal of this chapter is to focus on changes in endothelial function related to “normal” aging in the general population, and to discuss the interaction between aging and other cardiovascular risk factors in promoting vascular disease in the elderly.
THE AGED ENDOTHELIAL CELL
Little is known about how “normal aging” affects ECs in the absence of disease and/or age-related physiologic changes impacting vascular and endothelial function. Many of the observations are extrapolated from experiments using fibroblasts that have incurred numerous population doublings in vitro (2,3).
These important lines have not yet received an adequate discussion. Aphrodite has been told that her beloved Adonis is dying on the mountainside; she rushes to him in grief, letting down her hair and calling for him.
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