We investigated continuous fabrication of a large area 2-D metamaterial comprising a metal dot array on a dielectric coated substrate. We demonstrated patterning of metal dots arrays of varying patterns and shapes with diameter of about 2.5 μm and metal-to-metal spacing from 0.3 to 2.5 μm using a nano-imprinting stamp on a roller. The pattern was first fabricated on a standard photolithography mask, reproduced onto a silicon wafer master mold, and then transferred to a flexible polymer mold that was wrapped around a metal roller. The method was used to pattern a thin Al layer on top of SiO2 on a flexible polymer substrate. The aluminum was coated with a resist and the roller moved over the substrate with adjustable speed and pressure to imprint the fine pattern into the resist. The resist was cured, and a very thin layer of residual resist was removed by RIE, followed by a standard etching treatment for patterning the aluminum layer.
The as-etched pattern had very few defects and the optical properties of the metamaterial were excellent and correlated well with simulations. This work has shown that low cost, rapid roll-to-roll processing of 2-D metamaterial structures is possible.