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Gelatin/poly(epichlorohydrin-co-ethylene oxide) [GL : PECO] composites are synthesized in a one-step process by the incorporation of elastic PECO and diclofenac. [GL : PECO] fibers are prepared by Forcespinning®. GL : PECO fibers are capable of diclofenac, by conjugation via a labile amide linkage. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirmed the chemical reactions and hydrogen bonds between gelatin, PECO, and diclofenac. Diclofenac drug release from GL : PECO fibers are measured for 15 days and prolonged drug release is observed. The cell viability is studied with NIH/3T3 and excellent results are observed. The sustained drug release and cytotoxicity results reveal that GL : PECO fibers could be promising substitutes for skin tissue engineering, wound healing, and drug delivery.
The Archive is the main Gaia data distribution hub. The contents of DR1 are briefly reviewed and the data structures discussed. The system architecture, based on Virtual Observatory standards, is also presented, together with the extensions that allow e.g. authenticated access, persistent uploads and table sharing. Finally some usage examples are provided.
This article contributes to a line of research in Business History that aims to determine the factors of family business longevity in the long term with the study of individual cases. The literature has identified family cohesion as one of the essential factors for survival. Cohesion may be reinforced or broken at the time of the intergenerational transfer. This study finds that a critical response on the part of the business family to the difficulties associated with intergenerational transfer of control, including modifications to the original plan, is usually based on trust between generations. Within the business family cohesion facilitates intergenerational transfers and, consequently, allows the family to evolve and transform itself into a business dynasty.
The aim of this study was to develop a methodology to assess the degree of multidisciplinarity and international co-operation between scientists working on Deception Island, using techniques based on social network analysis. A database was built of the scientific output, as represented by published articles, on Deception Island between 1964–2012. From the 173 published articles, the main topics, the temporal trends, the profile of the principal journals, and the contributions made by each country, research institution and scientist were obtained. The data presented show a significant role played by four of the six nations belonging to the Deception Island Management Group. However, collaborations between researchers in different fields was unusual and co-authoring by researchers from different countries was relatively low. These results show that there is a need to strengthen international co-operation, a highly advisable strategy in Antarctica due to the complexity of logistics and high operational costs. Studies such as this may help to identify synergies between institutions and researchers from different nations, improving the scientific collaboration in this area of priority for conservation and management.
We describe the formal framework for cellularization functors in triangulated categories and study the preservation of ring and module structures under these functors in stable homotopy categories in the sense of Hovey, Palmieri and Strickland, such as the homotopy category of spectra or the derived category of a commutative ring. We prove that cellularization functors preserve modules over connective rings but they do not preserve rings in general (even if the ring is connective or the cellularization functor is triangulated). As an application of these results, we describe the cellularizations of Eilenberg–Mac Lane spectra and compute all acyclizations in the sense of Bousfield of the integral Eilenberg–Mac Lane spectrum.
Although the Near Threatened Eurasian otter Lutra lutra has been recovering in Europe since the 1980s nothing is known about population trends of the species in northern Africa. Ninety sites was searched for signs of otters in northern and western Morocco in 1983 and we repeated this survey in 2011. At each site we searched for otter spraints (faeces) or clear footprints along a maximum of 600 m of river bank, ending the search when the first sign was found. Overall results were strikingly similar in 1983 and 2011, with 36 positive sites and the same general distribution pattern of the species. Healthy otter populations appear to remain in the foothills of the Middle and High Atlas but the trend of populations disappearing from the relatively flat Atlantic slope has increased. The results are in clear contrast with the recovery of otter populations in Europe, probably because of differences in the implementation of environmental policies, especially regarding water pollution.
Ageing is an important determinant of atherosclerosis development rate, mainly by the creation of a chronic low-grade inflammation. Diet, and particularly its fat content, modulates the inflammatory response in the fasting and postprandial states. Our aim was to study the effects of dietary fat on the expression of genes related to inflammation (NF-κB, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), TNF-α and IL-6) and plaque stability (matrix metalloproteinase 9, MMP-9) during the postprandial state of twenty healthy, elderly people who followed three diets for 3 weeks each: (1) Mediterranean diet (Med Diet) enriched in MUFA with virgin olive oil; (2) SFA-rich diet; and (3) low-fat, high-carbohydrate diet enriched in n-3 PUFA (CHO-PUFA diet) by a randomised crossover design. At the end of each period, after a 12-h fast, the subjects received a breakfast with a composition similar to the one when the dietary period ended. In the fasting state, the Med Diet consumption induced a lower gene expression of the p65 subunit of NF-κB compared with the SFA-rich diet (P = 0·019). The ingestion of the Med Diet induced a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·033), MCP-1 (P = 0·0229) and MMP-9 (P = 0·041) compared with the SFA-rich diet, and a lower gene postprandial expression of p65 (P = 0·027) and TNF-α (P = 0·047) compared with the CHO-PUFA diet. Direct plasma quantification mostly reproduced the findings. Our data suggest that consumption of a Med Diet reduces the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with the SFA-rich and CHO-PUFA diets in elderly people. These findings may be partly responsible for the lower CVD risk found in populations with a high adherence to the Med Diet.
We report a novel, simple, and inexpensive method for preparing efficient carbon nanotube-based hydrogen sensors. Sensor devices were fabricated by simply spraying single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) dispersions on alumina substrates. Pd-functionalization of the employed SWNTs enabled increasing the device sensitivity to hydrogen. The effect of aging, thermal processing, and the employed carrier gases on the sensor performance is here described. The fabricated thin film sensors exhibited good sensitivity to hydrogen at room temperature in reversible and reproducible detection processes.
Anionic clays has been used in the adsorption of anionic species of toxic heavy metals, such as chromium (VI), which is considered to be a dangerous pollutant, due to its deleterious effects on human health such as epithelial irritation and cancer. In this work the removal of chromium in aqueous solutions using anionic clays with Mg/Al=7 was determined. The anionic clays were synthesized by the sol-gel method at pH 10 and 11.5, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy and N2 adsorption Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET). By this method, anionic clay containing brucite was obtained. The solids exhibited meso-porosity, high surface areas and thermal stability until 500°C. The data obtained from the adsorption experiments of chromium fitted to the Langmuir adsorption isotherm model and the adsorbent capacity was determined using the Langmuir adsorption equation. The maximum chromium uptake was 45 mg of Cr/g sorbent and 43 mg Cr/g sorbent for anionic clays prepared to pH 10 and 11.5, respectively. The Cr saturation point was attained after eight minutes stirring time. According to chromium adsorption values, the solution pH does not have a significant affect on the adsorption capacity of the anionic clays.
We investigated the effects of the flavonols kaempferol and quercetin on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), endothelial cell selectin (E-selectin), inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2), and on the activation of the signalling molecules NF-κB and activator protein-1 (AP-1), induced by a cytokine mixture in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Inhibition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation did not differ among both flavonols at 1 μmol/l but was significantly stronger for kaempferol at 5–50 μmol/l. Supplementation with increasing concentrations of kaempferol substantially attenuated the increase induced by the cytokine mixture in VCAM-1 (10–50 μmol/l), ICAM-1 (50 μmol/l) and E-selectin (5–50 μmol/l) expression. A significantly inhibitory effect of quercetin on VCAM-1 (10–50 μmol/l), ICAM-1 (50 μmol/l) and E-selectin (50 μmol/l) expression was also observed. Expression of adhesion molecules was always more strongly inhibited in kaempferol-treated than in quercetin-treated cells. The inhibitory effect on iNOS and COX-2 protein level was stronger for quercetin at 5–50 μmol/l. The effect of kaempferol on NF-κB and AP-1 binding activity was weaker at high concentrations (50 μmol/l) as compared with quercetin. The present study indicates that differences exist in the modulation of pro-inflammatory genes and in the blockade of NF-κB and AP-1 by kaempferol and quercetin. The minor structural differences between both flavonols determine differences in their anti-inflammatory properties and in their efficiency in inhibiting signalling molecules.
Minor components from dietary oils can modulate the atherogenic response of the TAG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) in which they are transported. In the present study we investigated the influence of TRL isolated from man after the intake of oleic acid-rich oils with different minor component compositions on VLDL secretion by rat primary hepatocytes. TRL were isolated from nine men after the intake of meals enriched with high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) or virgin olive oil (VOO) or VOO enriched with minor components (EVO). TRL were incubated with rat primary hepatocytes and the lipid accumulation was analysed in the cells and the secreted VLDL. The expression of genes for proteins related to hepatic lipid metabolism and VLDL production was also measured. Incubation of hepatocytes with TRL derived from HOSO as compared to VOO led to lower intracellular lipid accumulation and VLDL production despite higher mRNA expression for diacylglycerol-acyltransferase, microsomal TAG transfer protein, apoB and PPARα. When TRL derived from EVO were used there were no changes in VLDL secretion. These results suggest that incorporation of minor components from dietary high-oleic oils into TRL modulates the effect of these atherogenic particles on VLDL secretion.
The hypothesis that the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil dramatically influences hepatic gene expression was tested in mice. Two olive oils, obtained from the same olive cultivar but by different technological procedures, were characterized to show that they differed mainly in terms of the composition/quantity of this unsaponifiable fraction. Using DNA microarrays, hepatic gene expression was analysed in apoE-deficient mice fed one of two isoenergetic, isonitrogenous diets containing either 10 % (w/w) olive oil or unsaponifiable fraction-enriched olive oil. To provide an initial screening of potential candidate genes involved in a differential response, only genes with remarkably modified expression (signal log2 ratio >3 or < − 3) were further considered. The eleven genes fulfilling these prerequisites were confirmed by quantitative RT–PCR, and then analysed in apoE-deficient mice with a C57BL/6J genetic background. Orosomucoid and serum amyloid A2 were upregulated (to variable extents depending on the genetic background) in the absence of hepatic steatosis and inflammation. Fabp5 and Mt2 were also strongly upregulated. Several proteases were highly suppressed by the unsaponifiable-enriched olive diet, independent of the genetic background. The findings indicate that change in the expression of these genes is a good marker of the intake of the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil. The results highlight the important biological effects of the unsaponifiable fraction of olive oil. The term ‘monounsaturated fatty acid-enriched oil’ no longer appears appropriate for describing all the oils to which it is currently applied since it does not adequately reflect that they have different biological effects.
Grasspea (Lathyrus sativus L.) is an annual, herbaceous, drought-resistant legume and staple crop in Asian and African countries. Little is known about the nature and the amount of genetic diversity present in existing grasspea seed collections, yet this information is pivotal for future breeding programmes, such as those striving to reduce high neurotoxin levels present in seeds. Here we report on the level of genetic diversity within a world-wide collection of L. sativus, determined by isozymatic analysis. Although grasspea is generally considered a predominantly self-pollinating species, we found that the population genetic structure of these accessions showed a considerable outcrossing rate of 36%. The identification of a mixed mating system in L. sativus has significant implications for collecting and multiplying genetic resources for conservation and for future breeding purposes. In addition, we determined the genetic closeness of grasspea accessions from different geographical regions around the world. While we noticed an allelic richness in this species that was conserved across the regions, we did not find any evidence of high genetic identity between accessions, even when originating from the same geographical location. Instead, we found that greater genetic variability existed at the intra-regional level than at the inter-regional level.
The fatty acid composition of dietary oils can modulate the incorporation of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins (TRL) into hepatocytes, thus affecting the atherogenicity of these particles. However, nothing is known about the effect of the unsaponifiable fraction of the oils. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of these components on the uptake of TRL by rat primary hepatocytes. TRL were isolated from human serum after the intake of meals enriched in high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO), virgin olive oil (VOO) or VOO enriched in its own unsaponifiable fraction (EVO). HOSO and HOSO-TRL differed from VOO and EVO and their corresponding TRL in the composition of triacylglycerol molecular species and of the unsaponifiable fraction. Furthermore, the increase in the unsaponifiable fraction of VOO led to changes in the triacylglycerol molecular species in the EVO-TRL. On incubation with hepatocytes, HOSO-TRL were taken up at a faster rate than VOO-TRL or EVO-TRL. In addition, in comparison to VOO-TRL, HOSO-TRL increased the expression of mRNA for the LDL receptor-related protein receptor, which plays an important role in the internalisation of remnant lipoproteins. EVO-TRL also increased LDL receptor-related protein mRNA expression in comparison with VOO-TRL, but this change was not accompanied by a rise in the uptake rate, suggesting that the unsaponifiable fraction of VOO may inhibit LDL receptor-related protein expression or activity post-transcriptionally. In conclusion, TRL from dietary oils with differing triacylglycerol molecular species and unsaponifiable fraction content are taken up by liver cells at different rates, and this may be important in the atherogenicity of these particles.
‘Orujo’ olive oil is obtained by chemical processes from the waste resulting from the mechanical extraction of virgin olive oil. The aim of the present study was to evaluate a new pharmacological property of two natural triterpenoids contained in olive oil, as vasodilatory agents, and to determine their mechanism of action. The two compounds studied were oleanolic acid and erythrodiol. The vasorelaxant effect induced by these pentacyclic triterpenoids was studied in isolated thoracic rat aorta. Oleanolic acid and erythrodiol, accumulatively added, showed vasorelaxant activities in aortic rings with endothelium pre-contracted by 10−6 M-phenylephrine (maximum percentage of relaxation 86·38 (SEM 2·89) and 73·53 (SEM 6·01), respectively). They had almost no relaxant effect on depolarised or endothelium-denuded aortic segments. The relaxation was significantly attenuated by pre-treatment with the NO synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine-methylester (L-NAME; 3×10−4 m). To characterise the involvement of endothelial factors, in addition to NO, arteries with endothelium were exposed to 10−5 M-indomethacin (INDO), a cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, or INDO plus L-NAME. INDO did not have any significant effect on the relaxant response of both compounds. The combination of L-NAME plus INDO only abolished the oleanolic acid-induced relaxation. The present results suggest that the mechanism of relaxation seems to be mainly mediated by the endothelial production of NO; however, other mechanisms cannot be excluded. It can be concluded that oleanolic acid and erythrodiol may have interesting therapeutic potential as new vasodilator drugs, thus protecting the cardiovascular system. Therefore, the intake of ‘orujo’ olive oil, as a source of these compounds, might be beneficial in this regard.
In the present study we examined whether two virgin olive oils (VOO1 and VOO2), of the same variety (Olea europaea var. hojiblanca) and with a similar composition of minor components but differing in the content of triacylglycerol molecular species, had different effects on blood pressure and plasma lipid levels in a healthy elderly population. Thirty-one participants, aged 84·9 (SD 6·4) years, were asked to participate in the study. No differences were found with regard to blood pressure after both experimental periods (VOO1 and VOO2). However, plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were reduced only after VOO1 (P<0·01). The reduction of plasma cholesterol concentrations was related to the incorporation of oleic acid into plasma cholesteryl esters and phospholipids, which was higher after VOO1 (P<0·01). Indeed, the oleic acid concentration in cholesteryl esters and phospholipids strongly correlated with plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels in all experimental periods studied (r2>0·418, P<0·07), except for phospholipids in VOO1 (P=0·130 for total cholesterol and P=0·360 for LDL-cholesterol). These results have demonstrated that blood pressure and plasma lipids can be modified by the consumption of VOO in elderly people, but that the extent of such modification depends on the composition and amount of active minor components and triacylglycerol molecular species.
It has been demonstrated that triacylglycerol (TAG) mobilization from adipose tissue is selective and depends on fatty acid (FA) chain length, unsaturation and positional isomerism. The present study was performed to determine the influence of dietary fat on the composition of TAG stored in rat perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues. These results may provide information on the susceptibility of stored TAG to hydrolysis and further mobilization, and may help to establish an interrelationship between dietary composition and the FA efflux from adipose tissue. TAG molecular species and FA composition were determined by HPLC and GLC respectively. No significant differences were found in either FA or TAG composition between perirenal and subcutaneous adipose depots. The major FA in the dietary fats were present in the adipose tissues of the animals; in most cases, in similar proportions. However, differences were found between dietary and adipose tissue content of minor FA, which suggests that dietary FA composition is altered between ingestion and deposition in adipose tissue. The TAG molecular species of rat adipose tissue were enriched with the FA characteristic of each dietary fat. Dietary sunflower oil was responsible for enrichment with the most polar TAG. This finding may suggest easier mobilization of stored TAG. In conclusion, the process of fatty acid and TAG deposition in rat adipose tissue is selective, and depends on the composition of the diet.
The aim of the present work was to assess the influence of dietary lipid source on fatty acid phospholipid profiles and on lipid mobilization. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into four groups and fed on high-fat diets which provided olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil or beef tallow. All rats received the same amount of energy to avoid hyperphagia and differences in energy intake among groups. Phospholipid fatty acids were determined by GC. Lipolysis was stimulated in subcutaneous and perirenal isolated adipocytes by several lipolytic agents, and assessed by the determination of released glycerol. After 4 weeks of feeding, differences in body and adipose tissue weights were not observed. Dietary regimens caused great changes in adipose tissue phospholipid composition: rats fed on palm oil and beef tallow had higher concentrations of saturated fatty acids and animals fed on olive oil or sunflower oil had greater amounts of oleic and linoleic acids, respectively. These modifications did not lead to important changes in adipocyte lipolysis. Significant differences were only observed between palm-oil- and beef-tallow-fed groups when lipolysis was stimulated by isoproterenol in subcutaneous adipocytes. The fact that our feeding protocol did not induce differences in fat accumulation among groups avoids misinterpretations due to adiposity changes. The differences observed between both saturated-fat-fed groups, therefore, should only be attributable to dietary lipids. Despite this effect, the data from this work indicate that some diet-induced changes in adipose tissue fatty acid composition may have little effect on overall function.
To assess the performance of the Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC) risk index for the evaluation of the risk of surgical-site infection (SSI) in a country other than the United States, having a different health system.
350-bed university hospital in Spain belonging to the National Health System (Insalud).
Observational cohort study of 1,019 patients who underwent consecutive surgery from January to December 1992. Surgical-infection risk factors assessed by the traditional wound-classification system (clean, clean-contaminated, contaminated, and dirty-infected wound) and by the SENIC risk index (length of intervention more than 2 hours, more than three discharge diagnoses, abdominal surgery, and contaminated or dirty-infected wound) were compared by forward logistic regression.
The SENIC risk index showed a greater ability to predict SSI than the traditional wound-classification system. The study carried out in our institution reproduced the estimators provided by the SENIC study in the United States. The SENIC risk index provided a stepwise increase in SSI rates, according to the number of factors present, for every traditional wound-classification group. In the case of clean wounds, the incidence of surgical infection (per 100 interventions) increased (1.5, 2.4, 5.3, and 50; P<.001) for patients having from zero to three risk factors of the SENIC risk index.
This study shows that the SENIC risk index results are reproducible, and the index can be used to compare rates of wound infection across countries with different health systems than the United States.