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The aim of the study was to investigate the association between pre-gestational carbohydrate quality index (CQI) and the incidence of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). Data from the “Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra” (SUN) cohort were used, which includes 3,827 women who notified at least one pregnancy between December 1999 and December 2019. We used a validated semi-quantitative 136-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to evaluate dietary exposures at baseline and at 10-year follow-up. The CQI was defined by four criteria: glycaemic index, whole-grain/ total-grain carbohydrate, dietary fibre intake and solid/total carbohydrate ratio. We fitted generalized estimating equations with repeated measurements of the CQI to assess its relationship with incident GDM. A total of 6,869 pregnancies and 202 new cases of incident GDM were identified. The inverse association between the global quality of carbohydrate and the development of GDM was not statistically significant: Odds Ratio (OR) the highest vs. the lowest CQI category: 0.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40-1.10, p for trend = 0.10. Participants at the highest CQI category and with daily carbohydrate amounts ≥50% of total energy intake had the lowest incidence of GDM (OR= 0.29 (95% CI 0.09-0.89)) compared to those with the lowest quality (lowest CQI) and quantity (≤40%). Pre-conceptional quality of carbohydrate was not significantly associated with GDM. Further studies are needed to overcome the limitations of our study. Those studies should jointly consider the quality and the quantity of dietary carbohydrates, as the quality might be of importance, especially in women with a higher intake of carbohydrates.
Bats are one of the most abundant and important mammals in ecosystems. However, their fossil record is scarce and fragile, making them difficult to find. Accordingly, there is no record of this group in the volcanic islands of the mid-Atlantic Ocean apart from the Canary Islands. This paper studies the first bat fossil record of the Canary Islands (Spain). The material studied is found within two Quaternary lava tubes, Cueva de los Verdes on Lanzarote and Cueva Roja on the island of El Hierro. The dental and humeral morphology and biometry are analysed and compared with current specimens. Among our results we highlight the first fossil data of two species endemic to the islands of the mid-Atlantic Ocean, Plecotus teneriffae and Pipistrellus maderensis, the former from the Canary Islands and the latter from the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. We also confirm the presence of Pipistrellus kuhlii in the fossil record of the island of Lanzarote. No differences are observed between the dental morphology of the current and the fossil populations of P. maderensis and Pl. teneriffae. In the case of P. kuhlii, the populations of the Canary Islands and the Iberian Peninsula show differences in the paraconule with respect to the populations from central Europe. Palaeoecological studies of these taxa suggest that these islands presented a similar habitat when the sites were formed to the present-day habitat.
Foot reflexology is a type of complementary manual therapy that consists of applying pressure or massage to the sole of the foot to produce various therapeutic effects in other body areas or organs. This technique has been used in many different clinical indications, but there is uncertainty about its real effect. A health technology assessment (HTA) was conducted to analyze the efficacy and safety of foot reflexology within the framework of the “Health Protection Plan Against Pseudo-Therapies,” which was established in 2018 by the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Science and Innovation.
A systematic review and metanalysis was conducted to synthesize the available scientific literature on the efficacy and safety of foot reflexology in people of any age with any disease or medical condition.
Sixty-eight randomized controlled studies were included. Pooled estimates indicated that foot reflexology had no effect on pain, fatigue, depression, quality of life, quality of sleep, or blood pressure, compared with non-reflexological foot massage. Improvements in pain (standardized mean difference [SMD] −1.11, 95% CI: −1.70 - −0.52), fatigue (SMD −0.93, 95% CI: −1.36 - −0.51), sleep quality (SMD −1.11, 95% CI: −1.68 - −0.34), and systolic (mean difference [MD] −7.36, 95% CI: −8.49 - −6.23) and diastolic (MD −5.07, 95% CI: −0.98 - −0.22) blood pressure were obtained when reflexology was compared with usual care or no intervention. In the case of anxiety levels, the benefit obtained with foot reflexology compared with any comparator (SMD −0.6, 95% CI: −0.98 - −0.22) was attenuated when compared with non-reflexological foot massage (SMD −0.2, 95% CI: −0.36 - −0.03). Very few studies reported on the safety of foot reflexology.
There was no evidence for any specific effect of reflexology for any condition when compared with non-reflexological foot massage, except for a positive effect on anxiety levels.
A high dose of whey protein hydrolysate fed with milk minerals rich in calcium (Capolac®) results in enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations in lean individuals; however, the effect of different calcium doses ingested alongside protein is unknown. The present study assessed the dose response of calcium fed alongside 25 g whey protein hydrolysate on GLP-1 concentrations in individuals with overweight/obesity. Eighteen adults (mean ± sd: 8M/10F, 34 ± 18 years, 28·2 ± 2·9 kgm−2) completed four trials in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Participants consumed test solutions consisting of 25 g whey protein hydrolysate (CON), supplemented with 3179 mg (LOW), 6363 mg (MED) or 9547 mg (HIGH) Capolac® on different occasions, separated by at least 48 h. The calcium content of test solutions equated to 65, 892, 1719 and 2547 mg, respectively. Arterialised-venous blood was sampled over 180 min to determine plasma concentrations of GLP-1TOTAL, GLP-17–36amide, insulin, glucose, NEFA, and serum concentrations of calcium and albumin. Ad libitum energy intake was measured at 180 min. Time–averaged incremental AUC (iAUC) for GLP-1TOTAL (pmol·l−1·min−1) did not differ between CON (23 ± 4), LOW (25 ± 6), MED (24 ± 5) and HIGH (24 ± 6). Energy intake (kcal) did not differ between CON (940 ± 387), LOW (884 ± 345), MED (920 ± 334) and HIGH (973 ± 390). Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with Capolac® does not potentiate GLP-1 release in comparison with whey protein hydrolysate alone. The study was registered at clinical trials (NCT03819972).
The aim of this study was to assess the association between alcohol intake and premature mortality (younger than 65 years) and to explore the effect of potential alcohol underreporting by heavy drinkers. We followed-up 20 272 university graduates. Four categories of alcohol intake were considered (abstainer, light, moderate and heavy consumption). Repeated measurements of alcohol intake and updated information on confounders were used in time-dependent Cox models. Potential underreporting of alcohol intake by some heavy drinkers (likely misclassified as light or moderate drinkers) was explicitly addressed in an attempt to correct potential underreporting by using indirect information. During 12·3 years of median follow-up (interquartile range: 6·8–15·0), 226 participants died before their 65th birthday. A higher risk of early mortality was found for the highest category of alcohol intake (≥50 g/d) in comparison with abstention (multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 2·82, 95 % CI 1·38, 5·79). In analyses of alcohol as a continuous variable, the multivariable-adjusted HR was 1·17 (95 % CI 1·08, 1·26), for each 10 g/d of alcohol. This harmful linear association was present both in uncorrected models and in models corrected for potential underreporting. No significant inverse association between light or moderate alcohol intake and premature mortality was observed, even after correcting for potential misclassification. Alcohol intake exhibited a harmful linear dose–response association with premature mortality (<65 years) in this young and highly educated Mediterranean cohort. Our attempts to correct for potential misclassification did not substantially change these results.
Caring for a relative with dementia is associated with adverse consequences for cardiovascular health. Cognitive and behavioral factors, such as high perceived activity restriction and low frequency of pleasant events have been found to be associated with higher levels of blood pressure, but the role these variables play in the stress and coping process remains understudied. The objective of this study is to analyze the associations between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activity restriction, frequency of pleasant events, and mean arterial pressure.
Face-to-face interviews and cross-sectional analyses.
Social services, healthcare centers, and adult day services of Comunidad de Madrid, Spain.
One hundred and two family caregivers of a spouse or parent with dementia.
Apart from various sociodemographic and health-related variables, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, activity restriction, and frequency of leisure activities were assessed. In addition, measurement of blood pressure levels was conducted through an electronic sphygmomanometer.
The obtained model suggests that there is a significant indirect association between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and mean arterial pressure through activity restriction and frequency of pleasant events.
The findings of this study provide preliminary support for a potential indirect effect between behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and blood pressure, through the effects of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia on the caregivers’ levels of activity restriction and frequency of pleasant activities. Our manuscript provides additional support for the pleasant events and activity restriction model (Mausbach et al., 2011; Chattillion et al., 2013), by highlighting the importance of considering caregiving stressors as a source of caregivers’ activity restriction in the theoretical framework of the model.
A cumulative environmental exposure score for schizophrenia (exposome score for schizophrenia [ES-SCZ]) may provide potential utility for risk stratification and outcome prediction. Here, we investigated whether ES-SCZ was associated with functioning in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, unaffected siblings, and healthy controls.
This cross-sectional sample consisted of 1,261 patients, 1,282 unaffected siblings, and 1,525 healthy controls. The Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale was used to assess functioning. ES-SCZ was calculated based on our previously validated method. The association between ES-SCZ and the GAF dimensions (symptom and disability) was analyzed by applying regression models in each group (patients, siblings, and controls). Additional models included polygenic risk score for schizophrenia (PRS-SCZ) as a covariate.
ES-SCZ was associated with the GAF dimensions in patients (symptom: B = −1.53, p-value = 0.001; disability: B = −1.44, p-value = 0.001), siblings (symptom: B = −3.07, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −2.52, p-value < 0.001), and healthy controls (symptom: B = −1.50, p-value < 0.001; disability: B = −1.31, p-value < 0.001). The results remained the same after adjusting for PRS-SCZ. The degree of associations of ES-SCZ with both symptom and disability dimensions were higher in unaffected siblings than in patients and controls. By analyzing an independent dataset (the Genetic Risk and Outcome of Psychosis study), we replicated the results observed in the patient group.
Our findings suggest that ES-SCZ shows promise for enhancing risk prediction and stratification in research practice. From a clinical perspective, ES-SCZ may aid in efforts of clinical characterization, operationalizing transdiagnostic clinical staging models, and personalizing clinical management.
Phytoliths can be an important source of information related to environmental and climatic change, as well as to ancient plant use by humans, particularly within the disciplines of paleoecology and archaeology. Currently, phytolith identification and categorization is performed manually by researchers, a time-consuming task liable to misclassifications. The automated classification of phytoliths would allow the standardization of identification processes, avoiding possible biases related to the classification capability of researchers. This paper presents a comparative analysis of six classification methods, using digitized microscopic images to examine the efficacy of different quantitative approaches for characterizing phytoliths. A comprehensive experiment performed on images of 429 phytoliths demonstrated that the automatic phytolith classification is a promising area of research that will help researchers to invest time more efficiently and improve their recognition accuracy rate.
We report on what appear to be increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots Rhychopsitta pachyrhyncha. Thick-billed Parrots are classified as ‘Endangered’ and their seasonal breeding range is restricted to increasingly fragmented and degraded high elevation mixed conifer forest habitat within the Sierra Madre Occidental region of north-western Mexico. Predation of established breeding pairs has recently contributed to the ongoing decline of Thick-billed Parrot populations by removing mature birds with high reproductive value, which has associated consequences for future recruitment. We observed increasing predation events on nesting Thick-billed Parrots by bobcats Lynx rufus accompanied by kittens throughout the 2018–2019 breeding seasons, and we speculate that recent reductions in bobcat habitat have pushed them into new ranges where they are supplementing their diet with nontraditional prey items.
To analyze the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in workers of a hospital located in one of the most affected areas in Spain.
Design, settings, and patients:
Cross-sectional study performed between March and May 2020 over all workers of a secondary hospital in Madrid, Spain.
We employed polymerase chain reaction (PCR, for symptomatic individuals) and serology (for both PCR-negative symptomatic workers and asymptomatic workers) as diagnostic tests for severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We analyzed the prevalence of the virus in healthcare workers (HCWs) and nonhealthcare workers (nHCWs). We also collected information about the use of personal protective equipment (PPEs) and possible contacts prior to infection.
In total, 2,963 workers were included: 1,092 were symptomatic, and of these, 539 were positive by PCR (49.4% of symptomatic workers). From the remaining symptomatic workers, 197 (35.6%) were positive by serology. Regarding asymptomatic workers, 345 were positive by serology (31.9% of infected workers). In total, 1,081 (36.5%) presented a positive diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2. Infection rates were different between HCWs (37.4%) and nHCWs (29.8%) (P = .006). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, the use of PPE (protective: OR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.44–0.72; P < .001) and previous contact with COVID-19 patients (risk factor: OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.28–2.24; P < .001) were independent factors that were associated with SAS-CoV-2 infection.
Overall, >36% of our workers became infected with SARS-CoV-2, and the rate of asymptomatic infections accounted for almost 32% of all SARS-CoV-2 infections. We detected differences in the rates of infection between HCWs and nHCWs. The use of PPE and previous contact with COVID-19 patients were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection.
There is evidence that environmental and genetic risk factors for schizophrenia spectrum disorders are transdiagnostic and mediated in part through a generic pathway of affective dysregulation.
We analysed to what degree the impact of schizophrenia polygenic risk (PRS-SZ) and childhood adversity (CA) on psychosis outcomes was contingent on co-presence of affective dysregulation, defined as significant depressive symptoms, in (i) NEMESIS-2 (n = 6646), a representative general population sample, interviewed four times over nine years and (ii) EUGEI (n = 4068) a sample of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, the siblings of these patients and controls.
The impact of PRS-SZ on psychosis showed significant dependence on co-presence of affective dysregulation in NEMESIS-2 [relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI): 1.01, p = 0.037] and in EUGEI (RERI = 3.39, p = 0.048). This was particularly evident for delusional ideation (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 1.74, p = 0.003; EUGEI: RERI = 4.16, p = 0.019) and not for hallucinatory experiences (NEMESIS-2: RERI = 0.65, p = 0.284; EUGEI: −0.37, p = 0.547). A similar and stronger pattern of results was evident for CA (RERI delusions and hallucinations: NEMESIS-2: 3.02, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 6.44, p < 0.001; RERI delusional ideation: NEMESIS-2: 3.79, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 5.43, p = 0.001; RERI hallucinatory experiences: NEMESIS-2: 2.46, p < 0.001; EUGEI: 0.54, p = 0.465).
The results, and internal replication, suggest that the effects of known genetic and non-genetic risk factors for psychosis are mediated in part through an affective pathway, from which early states of delusional meaning may arise.
This study attempted to replicate whether a bias in probabilistic reasoning, or ‘jumping to conclusions’(JTC) bias is associated with being a sibling of a patient with schizophrenia spectrum disorder; and if so, whether this association is contingent on subthreshold delusional ideation.
Data were derived from the EUGEI project, a 25-centre, 15-country effort to study psychosis spectrum disorder. The current analyses included 1261 patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder, 1282 siblings of patients and 1525 healthy comparison subjects, recruited in Spain (five centres), Turkey (three centres) and Serbia (one centre). The beads task was used to assess JTC bias. Lifetime experience of delusional ideation and hallucinatory experiences was assessed using the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences. General cognitive abilities were taken into account in the analyses.
JTC bias was positively associated not only with patient status but also with sibling status [adjusted relative risk (aRR) ratio : 4.23 CI 95% 3.46–5.17 for siblings and aRR: 5.07 CI 95% 4.13–6.23 for patients]. The association between JTC bias and sibling status was stronger in those with higher levels of delusional ideation (aRR interaction in siblings: 3.77 CI 95% 1.67–8.51, and in patients: 2.15 CI 95% 0.94–4.92). The association between JTC bias and sibling status was not stronger in those with higher levels of hallucinatory experiences.
These findings replicate earlier findings that JTC bias is associated with familial liability for psychosis and that this is contingent on the degree of delusional ideation but not hallucinations.
Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) tend to lack insight, which is linked to poor outcomes. The effect size of previous treatments on insight changes in SSD has been small. Metacognitive interventions may improve insight in SSD, although this remains unproved.
We carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to examine the effects of metacognitive interventions designed for SSD, namely Metacognitive Training (MCT) and Metacognitive Reflection and Insight Therapy (MERIT), on changes in cognitive and clinical insight at post-treatment and at follow-up.
Twelve RCTs, including 10 MCT RCTs (n = 717 participants) and two MERIT trials (n = 90), were selected, totalling N = 807 participants. Regarding cognitive insight six RCTs (n = 443) highlighted a medium effect of MCT on self-reflectiveness at post-treatment, d = 0.46, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.30, p < 0.01. There was a small effect of MCT on self-certainty at post-treatment, d = −0.23, p = 0.03, but not at follow-up. MCT was superior to controls on an overall Composite Index of cognitive insight at post-treatment, d = 1.11, p < 0.01, and at follow-up, d = 0.86, p = 0.03, although we found evidence of heterogeneity. Of five MCT trials on clinical insight (n = 244 participants), which could not be meta-analysed, four of them favoured MCT compared v. control. The two MERIT trials reported conflicting results.
Metacognitive interventions, particularly Metacognitive Training, appear to improve insight in patients with SSD, especially cognitive insight shortly after treatment. Further long-term RCTs are needed to establish whether these metacognitive interventions-related insight changes are sustained over a longer time period and result in better outcomes.
Despite SARS-CoV-19 infection has a stereotypical clinical picture, isolated cases with unusual manifestations have been reported, some of them being well-known to be triggered by viral infections. However, the real frequency in COVID-19 is unknown. Analysing data of 63 822 COVID patients attending 50 Spanish emergency department (ED) during the COVID outbreak, before hospitalisation, we report frequencies of (myo)pericarditis (0.71‰), meningoencephalitis (0.25‰), Guillain–Barré syndrome (0.13‰), acute pancreatitis (0.71‰) and spontaneous pneumothorax (0.57‰). Compared with general ED population, COVID patients developed more frequently Guillain–Barré syndrome (odds ratio (OR) 4.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.09–9.90), spontaneous pneumothorax (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.40–2.79) and (myo)pericarditis (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.07–1.97), but less frequently pancreatitis (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.33–0.60).
Poor post-prandial glucose control is a risk factor for multiple health conditions. The second-meal effect refers to the progressively improved glycaemic control with repeated feedings, an effect which is achievable with protein ingestion at the initial eating occasion. The most pronounced glycaemic response each day therefore typically occurs following breakfast, so the present study investigated whether ingesting protein during the night could improve glucose control at the first meal of the day. In a randomised crossover design, fifteen adults (seven males, eight females; age, 22 (sd 3) years; BMI, 24·0 (sd 2·8) kg/m2; fasting blood glucose, 4·9 (sd 0·5) mmol/l) woke at 04.00 (sd 1) hours to ingest 300 ml water with or without 63 g whey protein. Participants then completed a mixed-macronutrient meal tolerance test (1 g carbohydrate/kg body mass, 2356 (sd 435) kJ), 5 h 39 min following the nocturnal feeding. Nocturnal protein ingestion increased the glycaemic response (incremental AUC) to breakfast by 43·5 (sd 55·5) mmol × 120 min/l (P = 0·009, d = 0·94). Consistent with this effect, individual peak blood glucose concentrations were 0·6 (sd 1·0) mmol/l higher following breakfast when protein had been ingested (P = 0·049, d = 0·50). Immediately prior to breakfast, rates of lipid oxidation were 0·02 (sd 0·03) g/min higher (P = 0·045) in the protein condition, followed by an elevated post-prandial energy expenditure (0·38 (sd 0·50) kJ/min, P = 0·018). Post-prandial appetite and energy intake were similar between conditions. The present study reveals a paradoxical second-meal phenomenon whereby nocturnal whey protein feeding impaired subsequent glucose tolerance, whilst increasing post-prandial energy expenditure.
Morning coffee is a common remedy following disrupted sleep, yet each factor can independently impair glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy adults. Remarkably, the combined effects of sleep fragmentation and coffee on glucose control upon waking per se have never been investigated. In a randomised crossover design, twenty-nine adults (mean age: 21 (sd 1) years, BMI: 24·4 (sd 3·3) kg/m2) underwent three oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT). One following a habitual night of sleep (Control; in bed, lights-off trying to sleep approximately 23.00–07.00 hours), the others following a night of sleep fragmentation (as Control but waking hourly for 5 min), with and without morning coffee approximately 1 h after waking (approximately 300 mg caffeine as black coffee 30 min prior to OGTT). Individualised peak plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were unaffected by sleep quality but were higher following coffee consumption (mean (normalised CI) for Control, Fragmented and Fragmented + Coffee, respectively; glucose: 8·20 (normalised CI 7·93, 8·47) mmol/l v. 8·23 (normalised CI 7·96, 8·50) mmol/l v. 8·96 (normalised CI 8·70, 9·22) mmol/l; insulin: 265 (normalised CI 247, 283) pmol/l; and 235 (normalised CI 218, 253) pmol/l; and 310 (normalised CI 284, 337) pmol/l). Likewise, incremental AUC for plasma glucose was higher in the Fragmented + Coffee trial compared with Fragmented. Whilst sleep fragmentation did not alter glycaemic or insulinaemic responses to morning glucose ingestion, if a strong caffeinated coffee is consumed, then a reduction in glucose tolerance can be expected.