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Infertility is defined as a failure of spontaneous conception after one year of regular sexual intercourse in the absence of contraceptive measures . This entity represents a rising medical complaint since one out of eight couples find it difficult to conceive a child for the first time, and up to one in six find it difficult to conceive twice. Currently, 70 million couples of reproductive age suffer from infertility worldwide, accounting for an estimated overall prevalence of 15% .
The legitimacy crisis confronting the international investment regime has called for reforms to eliminate the asymmetric and troubled nature of investment treaties. These instruments grant extensive investor protections without offering reciprocal safeguards for host States wishing to preserve regulatory space. This article argues that any reform designed to redress imbalances in the existing regime should first aim at narrowing the personal jurisdiction of investment tribunals. Problematically, access to most investment treaties depends on broad nationality requirements, which have enabled investors to use corporations or passports of convenience to obtain treaty protection. This practice exacerbates the unbalanced relationship between host States and investors. It increases host States’ exposure to investment treaty claims and allows investors to circumvent newer, more State-oriented investment treaties. Using as an example the novel anti-nationality planning approach embraced in the 2019 Dutch Model BIT, this article suggests effective treaty mechanisms that States can adopt to restrict the range of investors that are entitled to claim.
Transition metal dichalcogenide materials MX2 (M = Mo;W;X = S; Se) are being thoroughly studied due to their novel two-dimensional structure, that is associated with exceptional optical and transport properties. From a computational point of view, Density Functional Theory simulations perform very well in these systems and are an indispensable tool to predict and complement experimental results. However, due to the time and length scales where even the most efficient DFT implementations can reach today, this methodology suffers of stringent limitations to deal with finite temperature simulations or electron-lattice coupling when studying excitation states: the unit cells required to study, for instance, systems with thermal fluctuations or large polarons would require a large computational power. Multi-scale techniques, like the recently proposed Second Principles Density Functional Theory, can go beyond these limitations but require the construction of tight-binding models for the systems under investigation. In this work, we compare two such methods to construct the bands of WSe2. In particular, we compare the result of (i) Wannier-based model construction with (ii) the band fitting method of Liu et al., where the top of the valence band and the bottom of the conduction band are modeled by three bands symmetrized to have mainly Tungsten dz2, dxy and dx2-y2character. Our results emphasize the differences between these two approaches and how band fitting model construction leads to an overestimation of the localization of the real-space basis in a tight-binding representation.
This study develops a decision-making procedure to help policymakers compare alternative patterns for sustainable diets by reaching a compromise among three criteria: socio-economic perspective, health and environment (including carbon and water footprints). An Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was performed in several stages. First, a total of 25 stakeholders (members of organizations on the Valencia Food Policy Council) evaluated criteria that are relevant to the sustainability of diets. Secondly, a workshop with 14 experts from different backgrounds evaluated by consensus four dietary alternatives: Mediterranean, flexitarian, pescatarian and vegan. In terms of environment, experts gave priority to the vegan diet. However, the Mediterranean diet pattern (MDP) appeared, according to the process, as the most suitable pattern from the holistic perspective that integrates all relevant criteria. The MDP was ranked first in terms of the health criterion and the socio-economic perspective. These include culture, affordability, social impact and local production as decision elements that food policy advisory bodies take into consideration to define sustainable diets.
A platina sample brought to Spain in the last quarter of the 18th century is nowadays exhibited at the National Museum of Natural Sciences in Madrid. It originated from the ancient Mineralogical Museum of the School of Applied Chemistry at El Turco Street in Madrid and most probably corresponds to the material used by François Chabaneau for his experiments to purify platinum metal in the late 18th century. The sample is a heavy-mineral concentrate consisting of Pt–Fe alloys and gold nuggets associated with ilmenite–hematite, chromian spinel, goethite and minor quartz, sphene, rutile, magnetite, hornblende, garnet, calcite, pyrite, native bismuth and bismite. The Pt–Fe alloys exhibit a characteristic composition (81.97–90.75 wt.% Pt and 5.08–10.81 wt.% Fe with minor amounts of Cu, Os, Ir, Ru, Rh and Pd) and mineralogy of solid inclusions (abundant inclusions of Ir alloy as well as Os alloy, laurite–erlichmanite, bowieite, tulameenite and undetermined Pt–Pd–Ir–Rh antimonides and tellurides) that are very similar to those Pt–Fe alloys currently mined in western Colombia (the Chocó Department). These features allow us to discuss the provenance of the sample (probably from the proximal or medial reaches of any of the Chocó rivers) and evaluate the suitability of the Chabaneau's method for purifying platina. Our results show that the method became effective only with platina samples depleted or lacking iridium.
The aim of the current study was to examine the heterogeneity of functional outcomes in first episode psychosis (FEP) patients and related clinical, neurocognitive and sociodemographic factors using a cluster analytic approach.
A large sample of FEP patients (N = 209) was functionally reassessed 10 years after the first contact with an early intervention service. Multiple baseline, 3-year and 10-year follow-up variables were explored.
The cluster analysis emphasized the existence of six independent clusters of functioning: one cluster was normal overall (42.16%), two clusters showed moderate interpersonal (9.63%) or instrumental (12.65%) deficits, two clusters showed more severe interpersonal (12.05%) or interpersonal and instrumental (13.85%) deficits and there was a significantly overall impaired cluster (9.63%). Cluster comparisons showed that several baseline and follow-up factors were differentially involved in functional outcomes.
The current study demonstrated that distinct clusters of functioning in FEP patients can be identified. The fact that a variety of profiles was observed contributes to a better understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity characterizing FEP patients and has clinical implications for developing individualized treatment plans.
This research presents a new theory that explains analytically the behaviour of any fully developed incompressible turbulent pipe flow, steady or unsteady. We propose the name of theory of underlying laminar flow (TULF), because its main consequence is the description of any turbulent pipe flow as the sum of two components: the underlying laminar flow (ULF) and the purely turbulent component (PTC). We use the framework of the TULF to explain analytically most of the important and interesting phenomena reported in He & Jackson (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 408, 2000, pp. 1–38). To do so, we develop a simple model for the pressure gradient and Reynolds shear stress that could be applied to the linearly accelerated pipe flow described by He & Jackson (2000). The following features of the unsteady flow are explained: the deformation undergone by the mean velocity profiles during the transient, the velocity overshoot observed in the more rapid excursions, the dual deformation of mean velocity profiles when overshoots are present, the laminarisation effects described during acceleration, the rapid decrease of the Reynolds shear stress upon approaching the wall that brings forth the laminar sublayer, and some other minor effects. A new field is defined to characterise the degree of turbulence within the flow, directly calculable from the theory itself. Arguably, this new field would describe the degree of turbulence in a pipe flow more accurately than the familiar turbulence intensity parameter. Finally, a paradox is found in the deformation of the unsteady mean velocity profiles with respect to equal-Reynolds-number steady profiles, which is duly explained. The research also predicts the occurrence of mean velocity undershoots if the flow is decreased rapidly enough.
The Bay of Málaga is located in a high biodiversity and productivity area that harbours a wide variety of commercial species exploited by different fishing fleets. Benthic and demersal fauna from circalittoral soft bottoms have been studied using a benthic dredge (BD) (8 sampling stations) and an otter trawl (OT) (8 sampling stations on a seasonal basis). Some sediment and water column variables, as well as the trawling activity, have also been studied and used for analysing their linkage with the fauna. A total of 287 species have been found in these bottoms and fish, molluscs and crustaceans represented the most diverse and abundant faunistic groups. A new record of the decapod Hippolyte leptometrae for Spanish waters is also included in this study. Some multivariate analyses using BD samples indicated the presence of three assemblages, but these seem to represent different facies of a single benthic community due to the absence of acute sediment changes and significant differences in the fauna. OT samples only displayed differences related to seasons but not to sediment types or depth. These seasonal differences seem to be linked to biological and ecological features of both dominant and/or commercial species. Mud and organic matter contents (%OM) in sediment, as well as the temperature, were the main variables linked to the spatial distribution of the benthic community identified with BD, whereas medium and coarse sand as well as gravel contents were the main variables linked to the changes of the epibenthic and demersal assemblage resulting from OT samples. The information of this study is of importance for improving the knowledge on the biodiversity of circalittoral soft bottoms of the Mediterranean and Alboran Sea as well as for the potential creation of a Marine Fisheries Reserve in the Bay of Málaga.
The Murcia Twin Registry (MTR) is the only population-based registry in Spain. Created in 2006, the registry has been growing more than a decade to become one of the references for twin research in the Mediterranean region. The MTR database currently comprises 3545 adult participants born between 1940 and 1977. It also holds a recently launched satellite registry of university students (N = 204). Along five waves of data collection, the registry has gathered questionnaire and anthropometric data, as well as biological samples. The MTR keeps its main research focus on health and health-related behaviors from a public health perspective. This includes lifestyle, health promotion, quality of life or environmental conditions. Future short-term development points to the expansion of the biobank and the continuation of the collection of longitudinal data.
First-degree relatives of patients with psychotic disorder have higher levels of polygenic risk (PRS) for schizophrenia and higher levels of intermediate phenotypes.
We conducted, using two different samples for discovery (n = 336 controls and 649 siblings of patients with psychotic disorder) and replication (n = 1208 controls and 1106 siblings), an analysis of association between PRS on the one hand and psychopathological and cognitive intermediate phenotypes of schizophrenia on the other in a sample at average genetic risk (healthy controls) and a sample at higher than average risk (healthy siblings of patients). Two subthreshold psychosis phenotypes, as well as a standardised measure of cognitive ability, based on a short version of the WAIS-III short form, were used. In addition, a measure of jumping to conclusion bias (replication sample only) was tested for association with PRS.
In both discovery and replication sample, evidence for an association between PRS and subthreshold psychosis phenotypes was observed in the relatives of patients, whereas in the controls no association was observed. Jumping to conclusion bias was similarly only associated with PRS in the sibling group. Cognitive ability was weakly negatively and non-significantly associated with PRS in both the sibling and the control group.
The degree of endophenotypic expression of schizophrenia polygenic risk depends on having a sibling with psychotic disorder, suggestive of underlying gene–environment interaction. Cognitive biases may better index genetic risk of disorder than traditional measures of neurocognition, which instead may reflect the population distribution of cognitive ability impacting the prognosis of psychotic disorder.
To what extent meditation techniques (which incorporate practices to regulate attention, construct individual values, or deconstruct self-related assumptions), are more or less effective than relaxation therapy in the treatment of anxiety, is not clear. The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of meditation compared to relaxation in reducing anxiety. A systematic review from PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo and the Cochrane Central was conducted. A meta-analysis of 14 RCTs (n = 862 participants suffering from anxiety disorders or high trait anxiety) was performed. Effect sizes (ESs) were determined by Hedges’ g. Heterogeneity, risk of publication bias, quality of studies/interventions, and researcher allegiance, were evaluated. Meditation techniques incorporated attentional elements, and five of them also added constructive practices. No studies were found using deconstructive exercises. The overall ES was g = −0.23 [95% confidence interval (CI) −0.40 to −0.07], favouring meditation (number needed to treat = 7.74). Heterogeneity was low (I2 = 2; 95% CI 0 to 56). There was no evidence of publication bias, but few studies and interventions were of high quality, and allegiance might be moderating results. Meditation seems to be a bit more effective than relaxation in the treatment of anxiety, and it might also remain more effective at 12-month follow-up. However, more research using the full spectrum of meditation practices to treat different anxiety disorders, including independent studies to avoid researcher allegiance, is needed if we are to have a precise idea of the potential of these techniques compared to relaxation therapy.
Rate of treatment non-compliance in schizophrenia, like in other chronic diseases. Long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics have proven to be more effective than orals in reducing the number of recurrences. Although the perception of LAIs has changed over the last few years with the introduction of new molecules, there might be prejudices regarding these formulations within the mental health professionals community. The exercise of imagining how and with which antipsychotic you would like to treat yourself or a close relative in case of suffering from schizophrenia, can help to emerge true prescription preferences.
The objective of the present work is to assess the psychiatrists antipsychotics prescribing preferences for schizophrenia, in the hypothetical case they were patients suffering a 2nd/3rd relapse. With this purpose, we performed an on-line survey in a sample of psychiatrists and trainees fromSpain.
Results showed that election of LAIs were less frequent for in Self-prescription scenario, both for the 2nd and 3rd hypothetical recurrence. Also, psychiatrist who chose LAIs for their patients are more likely to choose orals for themselves (p=0.039; p<0.001 for 2nd and 3rd recurrence respectively). The most preferred LAI for both patients and self-prescription was aripiprazole once-monthly (60% and 87% respectively).
Interestingly, nearly 70% of psychiatrist choosing a LAI different form Aripiprazole, would change the prescription for themselves; and those choosing aripiprazole once-monthly for their patients were more likely to maintain it for themselves (p<0.001). Practitioners changing from LAIs to orals in the self-treatment scenario perceive LAIs as a more coercive measure (p<0.01), being the degree of coercitivity perceived the only variable associated with a change in prescription's decisions (p=0.002). Curiously, LAIs associated coercitivity was significantly lower for oncologist vs psychiatrists (p<0.001). The level of weight gain, metabolic problems, extrapyramidal symptomatology, sexual dysfunction, sedation and cognitive problems perceived by psychiatrists is significantly lower for Aripiprazole than for the rest of LAIs (p <0.01 for all comparisons), with a comparable perceived efficacy (mean=3.95 and 4 out of possible 5, p=0.7). In light of our results, this is partially explained by a perception of LAIs as coercive measures, in contrast with perception of similar treatments for the control of somatic diseases. The fact of imagining a scene where oneself is the one suffering from a disease, shows preferences in the use of psychotropic drugs for the management of schizophrenia where the profile of side-effects and efficacy has a more equitable balance: starting from comparable effectiveness, we prefer treatments associated with a perception of fewer side-effects
NATIONAL LAW IMPLEMENTING THE ENFORCEMENT DIRECTIVE
A. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY LAW
The Enforcement Directive was implemented in Spain by means of Law 19/2006 of 5 June, which increases the options for enforcing intellectual and industrial property rights and lays down the procedural rules to enable the application of several EU provisions (“Law 19/2006”).
Law 19/2006 has fi ve Articles, a transitional provision, a derogation provision and four fi nal provisions. The fi ve Articles amend the following Spanish laws (the “Spanish Intellectual Property (IP) Regulations”):
– Law 1/2000 of 7 January on Civil Procedure (“Civil Procedure Law”);
– Royal Legislative Decree 1/1996 of 12 April enacting the consolidated text of the intellectual property law (“Intellectual Property Law”);
– Law 11/1986 of 20 March on Patents (“1986 Patents Law”);
– Law 17/2001 of 7 December on Trademarks (“Trade Marks Law”);
– Law 20/2003 of 7 July on legal protection of Industrial Design (“Industrial Design Law”).
In Spain, IP rights are not regulated in a single code but in several laws that regulate copyright, trade marks, patents and industrial designs separately. The Civil Procedure Law contains the general provisions applicable to judicial procedures involving IP rights. Thus the main changes brought about by the Enforcement Directive were incorporated through the amendments to the Civil Procedure Law. The other amendments made to the sectorial legislation are complementary to the Civil Procedure Law, and homogeneous across the Spanish IP Regulations.
B. TRANSPOSITION ISSUES
The Enforcement Directive was transposed in Spain by Law 19/2006, which was approved on 5 June 2006 and entered into force on 7 June 2006. The Spanish legislator thus exceeded the deadline for transposing the Enforcement Directive (set for 29 April 2006) by a little more than one month.
The preliminary draft was prepared by the Justice Ministry and released for public consultation. Several entities involved in IP rights fi led their comments, such as the Spanish Music Producers Association, the Spanish Reproduction Rights Centre, the Spanish General Society of Authors and Publishers, and the Professional Association of Intellectual Property Agents.
Subsequently, the Spanish Council of State (which is the supreme consultative body of the Spanish Government) issued its opinion approving the preliminary draft. The draft was submitted to the Spanish Congress of Deputies and the Senate, which passed Law 19/2006.
In this work, the synthesis of starch-clay nanocomposites was carried out. For this purpose, natural starch was extracted from rice grains and it was characterized by structural and spectrophotometric techniques. Afterwards, it was used as the polymer matrix for the synthesis of nanocomposites crosslinked with different agents: glycerol, citric acid (CA) and sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP). As a reinforcement phase, a natural Mexican clay from the Montmorillonite-type (Mt), was employed, which was modified with a cationic surfactant, hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HDTMA-Br), in order to exchange cations, present in the interlaminar spaces of the raw clay mineral with those of the cationic surfactant; thus, changing its nature from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. Characterization, of both natural and organo-modified clays, was carried out by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), to determine the change in morphology between these two minerals; X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), to obtain the crystalline structure of the organo-modified clay and that of the raw clay mineral (Mt). Also, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to determine materials spectra, and their thermal stability was evaluated by means of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). On the other hand, the synthesis of these nanocomposites was performed using different crosslinking agents, glycerol, CA or STMP, in order to identify the effect of them into the final properties of these materials.
In this work, green nanotechnology has been applied by using phytochemical compounds as reducing agents from the plant extract of Hydrocotyle ranunuculoides through three modifications of the phytosynthesis method to prepare Fe and Zn nanoparticles, in three different concentration of the metallic solution. In the third modification a MgO support was included to avoid the Fe and Zn NP agglomeration. The nanoparticles size was 5±1 nm, and for the Fe NPs, it was determined with a cubic structure a Fe3O4 composition, and Zn nanoparticles were obtained with a hexagonal structure and Zn° composition. In the third method, MgO nanoparticle, the support appears as Mg0 nanoparticles surrounded by Fe0 and Zn0 nanoparticles. According to the three used methods pathways, the main influence is the modification in the method synthesis. Hybrid nanocomposites provide a means in preventing agglomeration of the NPs and hence avoid coalescence and loss of properties.
In conservation biology, population monitoring is a critical step, particularly for endangered groups, such as steppe birds in European agro-ecosystems. Long-term population monitoring allows for determination of species population trends and also provides insights into the relative roles that environmental variability and human activities have on priority species. Here, we compare the population trends of two sympatric, closely related farmland bird species, the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax and Great Bustard Otis tarda, in a protected area of Central Spain, which is their main stronghold in Europe. Over 12 years of monitoring, the abundance of Little and Great Bustards shifted in opposite directions in our study area. Little Bustard abundance decreased significantly (both males [-56%], and harder-to-detect females [-55%]), while Great Bustard abundance increased significantly (1,800%). Future surveys should be more precise and frequent for Little Bustards to facilitate evaluation of their population status and trends. We recommend annual surveys in 2–3 important locations by region throughout the breeding range for Little Bustards, while for Great Bustard the current regional monitoring programmes would be sufficient.
Mechanized dredging impact on discards was assessed along the northern Alboran Sea (W Mediterranean Sea). Data from 101 dredging operations were analysed for contrasting spatial and seasonal variability of damage, with the use of a three-level damage scale. 4.5% of discarded individuals displayed intermediate damage, whereas 11.3% displayed severe damage. Echinoderms displayed the highest level of damage (~75% of total collected individuals) and Echinocardium cf. mediterraneum was the most susceptible discarded species (85% with severe damage), followed by bivalves (7.3%) and crustaceans (3.3%). The target Chamelea gallina showed a low proportion of damaged individuals, probably due to their thick protective shell, which promotes the survival of discarded undersized target individuals. Spatial differences in damage level on discards were linked to some gear characteristics, to the higher amount of gravels and to longer tow durations, whereas damage was generally higher in cold months and partly related to higher quantities of hard shelled molluscs, in both cases increasing the abrasion and damage to retained organisms. Data suggest that dredges with a lower number of narrower iron teeth and towed for a shorter time could decrease the damage rate in discards of this fishery. A spatial management plan based on the type of grounds would be useful in order to improve efficiency of these fisheries and minimize their impact to soft bottoms with different commercial catches and biological communities.