In the mushrooms Pleurotus ostreatus and Agrocybe aegerita, expression of the hemolytic proteins ostreolysin and aegerolysin, which belong to the aegerolysin family, has been shown to be initiated specifically during formation of primordia and fruiting bodies. We used rabbit anti-ostreolysin and fluorescent rhodamine-labelled secondary goat antibodies for monitoring ostreolysin and aegerolysin in situ during the mushrooms' development. In parallel, the protein level in developing tissues was monitored with SDS-PAGE and hemolytic assay. Immunolocalization of ostreolysin, visualized by epifluorescence, together with biochemical tests, confirmed specific expression of ostreolysin and aegerolysin in the primordia and fruiting bodies but not in the vegetative mycelia. In the primordia, the proteins were disposed diffusely. In growing and mature fruit bodies they persisted in the lower part of the pileus, in particular in basidia and basidiospores, while in other parts only a few focal remains were observed. Confocal microscopy of immunolabelled sections showed that intracellular ostreolysin was located specifically along the inner edges of hyphae. Since both proteins were found preferentially in the rapidly growing primordia, and in the basidia and basidiospores of maturing fruit bodies, it is suggested that they might play a role in the processes of fructification and/or sporulation.