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Glyphosate typically controls Palmer amaranth very well. However, glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of this weed are present in several southern states, requiring the development of effective alternatives to glyphosate-only management strategies. Field experiments were conducted in seven North Carolina environments to evaluate control of glyphosate-susceptible (GS) and GR Palmer amaranth in narrow-row soybean by glyphosate and conventional herbicide systems. Conventional systems included either pendimethalin or S-metolachlor applied PRE alone or mixed with flumioxazin, fomesafen, or metribuzin plus chlorimuron followed by fomesafen or no herbicide POST. S-metolachlor was more effective at controlling GR and GS Palmer amaranth than pendimethalin; flumioxazin and fomesafen were generally more effective than metribuzin plus chlorimuron. Fomesafen applied POST following PRE herbicides increased Palmer amaranth control and soybean yield compared with PRE-only herbicide systems. Glyphosate alone applied once POST controlled GS Palmer amaranth 97% late in the season. Glyphosate was more effective than fomesafen plus clethodim applied POST. Control of GS Palmer amaranth when treated with pendimethalin or S-metolachlor plus flumioxazin, fomesafen, or metribuzin plus chlorimuron applied PRE followed by fomesafen POST was equivalent to control achieved by glyphosate applied once POST. In fields with GR Palmer amaranth, greater than 80% late-season control was obtained only with systems of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor plus flumioxazin, fomesafen, or metribuzin plus chlorimuron applied PRE followed by fomesafen POST. Systems of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor plus flumioxazin, fomesafen, or metribuzin plus chlorimuron applied PRE without fomesafen POST controlled GR Palmer amaranth less than 30% late in the season. Systems of pendimethalin or S-metolachlor PRE followed by fomesafen POST controlled GR Palmer amaranth less than 60% late in the season.
Field experiments were conducted in Georgia to evaluate weed control and crop tolerance with glufosinate applied to ‘PHY 485 WRF®’ cotton. This glyphosate-resistant cotton also contains a gene, used as a selectable marker, for glufosinate resistance. Three experiments were maintained weed-free and focused on crop tolerance; a fourth experiment focused on control of pitted morningglory and glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth. In two experiments, PHY 485 WRF cotton was visibly injured 15 and 20% or less by glufosinate ammonium salt at 430 and 860 g ae/ha, respectively, applied POST two or three times. In a third experiment, glufosinate at 550 g/ha injured cotton up to 36%. Pyrithiobac or glyphosate mixed with glufosinate did not increase injury compared to glufosinate applied alone; S-metolachlor mixed with glufosinate increased injury by six to seven percentage points. Cotton injury was not detectable 14 to 21 d after glufosinate application, and cotton yields were not reduced by glufosinate or glufosinate mixtures. A program of pendimethalin PRE, glyphosate applied POST twice, and diuron plus MSMA POST-directed controlled glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth only 17% late in the season. S-metolachlor included with the initial glyphosate application did not increase control, and pyrithiobac increased late-season control by only 13 percentage points. Palmer amaranth was controlled 90% or more when glufosinate replaced glyphosate in the aforementioned system. Pitted morningglory was controlled 99% by all glufosinate programs and mixtures of glyphosate plus pyrithiobac. Seed cotton yields with glufosinate-based systems were at least 3.3 times greater than yields with glyphosate-based systems because of differences in control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth has become a serious pest in parts of the Cotton Belt. Some GR cotton cultivars also contain the WideStrike™ insect resistance trait, which confers tolerance to glufosinate. Use of glufosinate-based management systems in such cultivars could be an option for managing GR Palmer amaranth. The objective of this study was to evaluate crop tolerance and weed control with glyphosate-based and glufosinate-based systems in PHY 485 WRF cotton. The North Carolina field experiment compared glyphosate and glufosinate alone and in mixtures applied twice before four- to six-leaf cotton. Additional treatments included glyphosate and glufosinate mixed with S-metolachlor or pyrithiobac applied to one- to two-leaf cotton followed by glyphosate or glufosinate alone on four- to six-leaf cotton. All treatments received a residual lay-by application. Excellent weed control was observed from all treatments on most weed species. Glyphosate was more effective than glufosinate on glyphosate-susceptible (GS) Palmer amaranth and annual grasses, while glufosinate was more effective on GR Palmer amaranth. Annual grass and GS Palmer amaranth control by glyphosate plus glufosinate was often less than control by glyphosate alone but similar to or greater than control by glufosinate alone, while mixtures were more effective than either herbicide alone on GR Palmer amaranth. Glufosinate caused minor and transient injury to the crop, but no differences in cotton yield or fiber quality were noted. This research demonstrates glufosinate can be applied early in the season to PHY 485 WRF cotton without concern for significant adverse effects on the crop. Although glufosinate is often less effective than glyphosate on GS Palmer amaranth, GR Palmer amaranth can be controlled with well-timed applications of glufosinate. Use of glufosinate in cultivars with the WideStrike trait could fill a significant void in current weed management programs for GR Palmer amaranth in cotton.
Interference for 40 d after emergence (DAE) of corn, cotton, peanut, and
snap bean by four glyphosate-resistant (GR) and four glyphosate-susceptible
(GS) Palmer amaranth populations from Georgia and North Carolina was
compared in the greenhouse. Greater interference from Palmer amaranth,
measured as crop height and fresh weight reduction, was noted in cotton and
peanut compared with corn or snap bean. Crop height 15 to 40 DAE was reduced
similarly by GR and GS populations. Crop fresh weight, however, was reduced
25 and 19% in the presence of GS and GR populations, respectively. Measured
as percent reduction in fresh weight, GR and GS populations of Palmer
amaranth were controlled similarly by glufosinate, lactofen, paraquat, and
trifloxysulfuron applied POST. Atrazine and dicamba controlled GR
populations more effectively than GS populations.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth is a serious problem in southern
cropping systems. Much phenotypic variation is observed in Palmer amaranth
populations with respect to plant growth and development and susceptibility
to herbicides. This may be related to levels of genetic diversity existing
in populations. Knowledge of genetic diversity in populations of Palmer
amaranth may be useful in understanding distribution and development of
herbicide resistance. Research was conducted to assess genetic diversity
among and within eight Palmer amaranth populations collected from North
Carolina and Georgia using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP)
markers. Pair-wise genetic similarity (GS) values were found to be
relatively low, averaging 0.34. The highest and the lowest GS between
populations were 0.49 and 0.24, respectively, while the highest and the
lowest GS within populations were 0.56 and 0.36, respectively. Cluster and
principal coordinate (PCO) analyses grouped individuals mostly by population
(localized geographic region) irrespective of response to glyphosate or
gender of individuals. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) results when
populations were nested within states revealed significant variation among
and within populations within states while variation among states was not
significant. Variation among and within populations within state accounted
for 19 and 77% of the total variation, respectively, while variation among
states accounted for only 3% of the total variation. The within population
contribution towards total variation was always higher than among states and
among populations within states irrespective of response to glyphosate or
gender of individuals. These results are significant in terms of efficacy of
similar management approaches both in terms of chemical and biological
control in different areas infested with Palmer amaranth.
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
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