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Saflufenacil solubility and efficacy has been shown to be influenced by carrier water pH. This research was conducted to determine if altering the pH of a solution already containing saflufenacil would influence the efficacy of the herbicide. Saflufenacil at 25 g ai ha−1 was applied to field corn in carrier water with one of five initial pH levels (4.0, 5.2, 6.5, 7.7, or 9.0) and then buffered to one of four final solution pH levels (4.0, 6.5, 9.0, or none) for a total of twenty treatments. All treatments included ammonium sulfate at 20.37 g L−1 and methylated seed oil at 1% v/v. Generally, saflufenacil with a final solution pH of 6.5 or higher provided more dry weight reduction of corn than saflufenacil applied in a final pH of 5.2 or lower. When applying saflufenacil in water with an initial pH of 4.0 or 5.2, efficacy was increased by raising the final solution pH to either 6.5 or 9.0. Conversely, reduction in corn dry weight was less when solution pH of saflufenacil mixed in carrier water with an initial pH of 6.5 or 7.7 was lowered to a final pH of 4.0. When co-applying saflufenacil with herbicides that are very acidic, such as glyphosate, efficacy of saflufenacil may be reduced if solution pH is 5.2 or lower.
Dicamba or 2,4-D will be used POST for the control of weeds in soybean when dicamba- or 2,4-D-resistant soybean are commercialized. The active ingredients of both herbicides are weak acids in solution and may bind to cations present from hard water used as herbicide carrier or from foliar fertilizers added to spray solutions. The objectives of this research were (1) to determine if the efficacy of dicamba or 2,4-D are influenced by divalent cations, namely calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn), in the spray solution, and (2) to determine if adding ammonium sulfate (AMS) to the spray solution can overcome antagonism. The factorial study included five cation solutions (deionized water [dH2O], Ca at 590 mg L−1, Mg at 630 mg L−1, Mn at 4.97 L ha−1, and Zn at 2.33 L ha−1), two herbicide treatments (dicamba or 2,4-D), and two water conditioner treatments (without or with AMS at 20.37 g L−1). Treatments were applied to common lambsquarters, horseweed, and redroot pigweed. Control of horseweed and redroot pigweed increased when AMS was added to the 2,4-D treatments, irrespective of cation solution. Control of common lambsquarters was increased when AMS was added to 2,4-D for only the Ca and Mn cation solution. In contrast to the results obtained with 2,4-D, control of horseweed with dicamba was not influenced by cation solution. Tank-mixing AMS with dicamba increased control of both redroot pigweed and common lambsquarters in the dH2O, Mg, and Mn solutions.
The pH and hardness of water used as agrochemical carrier can influence herbicide efficacy. The objective of this research was to determine the role of carrier water pH and hardness on saflufenacil efficacy and solubility. Saflufenacil was mixed in eight different carrier waters with one of five pH levels (4.0, 5.2, 6.5, 7.7, 9.0) or one of three hardness levels (0, 310, 620 mg L−1) and applied POST to common lambsquarters and giant ragweed in a field experiment and to field corn in a greenhouse experiment. Solubility testing was also completed on saflufenacil mixed in the five pH levels used in the field and greenhouse experiments. Water hardness did not influence the efficacy of saflufenacil on common lambsquarters, giant ragweed, or field corn. Control of giant ragweed or common lambsquarters in field experiments was reduced by up to 56% when saflufenacil was applied in water with a pH of 4.0 compared with water with a pH of 7.7. When nonsoluble saflufenacil was removed from the spray solution, saflufenacil efficacy on field corn in the greenhouse was reduced by 61% or more when applied in water with a pH of 4.0 than when applied with water with a pH of 5.2 or higher. When nonsoluble saflufenacil was applied with the soluble saflufenacil in the spray solution, at least a 7% reduction in control of field corn was observed when applied in water with pH of 4.0 as compared with saflufenacil applied in water with pH of 5.2 or higher. Solubility of saflufenacil was (1) 10.1 mg L−1 in water with a pH of 4.0, (2) 3,461.4 mg L−1 in water with a pH of 7.7, and (3) > 5,000 mg L−1 at a pH of 9. Some degradation of parent saflufenacil was detected in the pH at 9.0 treatment, with only 90% of added product being recovered after 3 d of storage. This research provides information on how saflufenacil efficacy and solubility is influenced by carrier water pH and potentially explains some differences noticed between field applications of saflufenacil.
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