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The purpose of this scoping literature review was to determine what is known about: 1) structures and processes required to build successful collaborations between primary care (PC) and public health (PH); 2) outcomes of such collaborations; and 3) markers of their success.
Collaboration between PC and PH is believed to enable more effective individual and population services than what might be achieved by either alone.
The study followed established methods for a scoping literature review and was guided by a framework that identifies systemic, organizational and interactional determinants for collaboration. The review was restricted to articles published between 1988 and 2008. Published quantitative and qualitative primary studies, evaluation research, systematic and other types of reviews, as well as descriptive accounts without an explicit research design, were included if they addressed either the structures or processes to build collaboration or the outcomes or markers of such collaboration, and were published in English.
The combined search strategy yielded 6125 articles of which 114 were included. Systemic-level factors influencing collaboration included: government involvement, policy and fit with local needs; funding and resource factors, power and control issues; and education and training. Lack of a common agenda; knowledge and resource limitations; leadership, management and accountability issues; geographic proximity of partners; and shared protocols, tools and information sharing were influential at the organizational level. Interpersonal factors included having a shared purpose; philosophy and beliefs; clear roles and positive relationships; and effective communication and decision-making strategies. Reported benefits of collaboration included: improved chronic disease management; communicable disease control; and maternal child health. More research is needed to explore the conditions and contexts in which collaboration between PC and PH makes most sense and potential gains outweigh the associated risks and costs.
This paper describes the methods, strategies and technologies used to conduct a scoping literature review examining primary care (PC) and public health (PH) collaboration. It presents challenges encountered as well as recommendations and ‘lessons learned’ from conducting the review with a large geographically distributed team comprised of researchers and decision-makers using an integrated knowledge translation approach.
Scoping studies comprehensively map literature in a specific area guided by general research questions. This methodology is especially useful in researching complex topics. Thus, their popularity is growing. Stakeholder consultations are an important strategy to enhance study results. Therefore, information about how best to involve stakeholders throughout the process is necessary to improve quality and uptake of reviews.
This review followed Arksey and O'Malley's five stages: identifying research questions; identifying relevant studies; study selection; charting the data; and collating, summarizing and reporting results. Technological tools and strategies included: citation management software (Reference Manager®), qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 8), web conferencing (Elluminate Live!) and a PH portal (eHealthOntario), teleconferences, email and face-to-face meetings.
Of 6125 papers identified, 114 were retained as relevant. Most papers originated in the United Kingdom (38%), the United States (34%) and Canada (19%). Of 80 papers that reported on specific collaborations, most were descriptive reports (51.3%). Research studies represented 34 papers: 31% were program evaluations, 9% were literature reviews and 9% were discussion papers. Key strategies to ensure rigor in conducting a scoping literature review while engaging a large geographically dispersed team are presented for each stage. The use of enabling technologies was essential to managing the process. Leadership in championing the use of technologies and a clear governance structure were necessary for their successful uptake.
Refugees from Kosovo arrived in several Canadian cities after humanitarian evacuations in 1999. Approximately 500 arrived in Hamilton, Canada. Volunteer sponsors from community organizations assisted the families with settlement, which included providing them access to healthcare services.
Hypothesis/Problem: It was anticipated that women, in particular, would have unmet health needs relating to trauma and a lack of healthcare access after experiencing forced migration.
This study describes the results of a self-administered survey regarding women's health issues and experiences with health services after the arrival of refugees. It also describes the sponsor group's experience related to women's health care. The survey was administered to a random sample of 85 women refugees, and focus groups with 14 sponsors.Women self-completed questionnaires about their health, which included the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and use of preventive health services. Sponsor groups participated in a focus group discussing healthcare needs and experiences of their assigned refugee families. Themes pertaining to women's issues were identified from the focus groups.
Preventive screening rates were low, only 1/19 (5.3%) women ≥50- years-old had ever received a mammogram; 34.1% (28/82) had ever received a Pap test); and PTSD was prevalent (25.9%, 22/85). Sponsor groups identified challenges relating to prenatal care needs, finding family physicians, language barriers to health care services, cultural influences of women's healthcare decision-making, mental health concerns, and difficulties accessing dental care, eye care, and prescriptions.
Many women refugees from Kosovo had unmet health needs. Culturally appropriate population level screening campaigns and integration of language and interpretation services into the healthcare sector on a permanent basis are important policy actions to be adequately prepared for newcomers and women in displaced situations. These needs should be anticipated during the evacuation period by host countries to aid in planning the provision of health resources more efficiently for refugees and displaced people going to host countries.
To determine influenza vaccination rates and attitudes toward vaccination among emergency department health care workers at 4 Ontario teaching hospitals.
During the influenza season of 1999–2000 a confidential 28-item survey was distributed to emergency physicians and residents, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other allied health care workers at the emergency departments of 4 London, Ontario teaching hospitals.
Of 426 surveys distributed, 343 were returned, for an overall response rate of 80.5%. The mean age of respondents was 38.5 years (standard deviation = 8.3), 74.3% were female, and 86.6% were non-smokers. The overall vaccination rate was 37.0% (95% confidence interval, 31.9%–42.4%). Vaccination rates were 45.9% for respiratory therapists, 35.3% for emergency physicians and residents, 34.5% for nurses and 27.1% for other allied health care workers (p = 0.083). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that age ≥41 and a chronic medical condition were positively associated with influenza vaccination (p < 0.05). Close to one-third of respondents (28.3%) believed that adverse affects were common, 51.6% believed vaccination was effective, 52% would support a program to improve vaccination rates among emergency department staff, and 24.4% would support mandatory vaccination for this population. Only 26.8% believed that patients were at increased risk of contracting influenza from emergency department staff, but 58.3% perceived that emergency department staff were at increased risk of contracting influenza through exposure to patients.
In this study, only 37% of emergency department health care workers were immunized against influenza, with chronic illness and older age being the only 2 significant correlates. Strategies to improve emergency department health care worker attitudes toward influenza vaccination for themselves and to increase vaccination rates for this population should be developed.
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