Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a collective term for conditions characterised by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract involving an inappropriate immune response to commensal micro-organisms in a genetically susceptible host. Previously, aqueous and ethyl acetate extracts of gold kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis) or green kiwifruit (A. deliciosa) have demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity using in vitro models of IBD. The present study examined whether these kiwifruit extracts (KFE) had immune-modulating effects in vivo against inflammatory processes that are known to be increased in patients with IBD. KFE were used as a dietary intervention in IL-10-gene-deficient (Il10− / −) mice (an in vivo model of IBD) and the C57BL/6J background strain in a 3 × 2 factorial design. While all Il10− / − mice developed significant colonic inflammation compared with C57BL/6J mice, this was not affected by the inclusion of KFE in the diet. These findings are in direct contrast to our previous study where KFE reduced inflammatory signalling in primary cells isolated from Il10− / − and C57BL/6J mice. Whole-genome gene and protein expression level profiling indicated that KFE influenced immune signalling pathways and metabolic processes within the colonic tissue; however, the effects were subtle. In particular, expression levels across gene sets related to adaptive immune pathways were significantly reduced using three of the four KFE in C57BL/6J mice. The present study highlights the importance of investigating food components identified by cell-based assays with appropriate in vivo models before making dietary recommendations, as a food that looks promising in vitro may not be effective in vivo.