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There is a dearth of literature providing guidance on how to effectively communicate about clinical research (CR).
Using the transactional model of communication, a content analysis of the investigator (n=62) and participant (n=18) Web sites of institutions funded through the National Institutes of Health Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) was conducted to identify their strategies (e.g., messages) for communicating about CR participation.
CTSAs targeted investigators with CR participation content across the main Web sites, although most CTSAs (n=55; 88.7%) also included CR participation content for participants. In total, 18 CTSAs (29%) hosted participant Web sites. Participant sites included 13 message types about CR participation (e.g., registry enrollment) and 5 additional channels (e.g., email, phone number) to communicate about CR. However, many CTSA participant Web sites excluded information explaining the CR process and offered CR content exclusively in English.
CTSAs should identify their target audience and design strategies (e.g., messages, channels) accordingly.
This study uses KL2 scholars’ publications to evaluate the types of research the KL2 program supports and to assess the initial productivity and impact of its scholars.
We illustrate the feasibility of 3 different approaches to bibliometrics, one viable method for determining the types of research a program or hub supports, and demonstrate how these data can be further combined with internal data records.
Gender differences were observed in the types of research scholars undertake. Overall KL2 scholars are performing well, with their publications being cited more than the norm for National Institutes of Health publications. Favorable results were also observed in scholars’ continued engagement in research.
This study illustrates that linking bibliometric data and data categorizing publications along the translational spectrum with a Clinical and Translational Science Award hub’s internal data records is feasible and offers a number of innovative possibilities for the evaluation of a Clinical and Translational Science Award hub’s programs and investigators.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Community engagement is a commonly used term, but is complex in both meaning and application. In order to help academic institutions and administrators develop infrastructure to promote and support community engagement and to help investigators work productively with communities, this analysis discusses the major components of community engagement in research on both the institutional and individual project levels as well as the interplay between them. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A literature synthesis conducted by a community engagement in research committee at 1 CTSA institution that examined the myriad factors related to effective community engagement in research identified across multiple disciplines was used to distill the major factors identified, assesses the interplay of the identified factors, and produce a conceptual model to help administrators and investigators apply best practices in engaging communities in clinical and translational research. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This work takes a concept—community engagement in research—that is often stated and discussed, but is highly complex and challenging to implement—and identifies and discusses the multiple, interrelated factors germane to it. The model illustrates that while community engagement in research is implemented in the context of individual projects, a deep and continual interplay between individual projects and the goals, capacity, and policies of research institutions is needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results are presented through a conceptual framework which displays the major components needed for rigorous, ethical, and effective community engagement in clinical and translational research. In addition, the conceptual framework presented will provide assistance to those developing approaches to measure and evaluate institutional readiness for community engagement in research as well as the effectiveness of individual community engagement efforts.
Limited continuity of care, poor communication between healthcare providers, and ineffective self-management are barriers to recovery as seniors transition back to the community following an Emergency Department (ED) visit or hospitalization. The intensive geriatric service worker (IGSW) role is a new service developed in southern Ontario, Canada to address gaps for seniors transitioning home from acute care to prevent rehospitalization and premature institutionalization through the provision of intensive support and follow-up to ensure adherence to care plans, facilitate communication with care providers, and promote self-management. This study describes the IGSW role and provides preliminary evidence of its impact on clients, caregivers and the broader health system.
This mixed methods evaluation included a chart audit of all clients served, tracking of the achievement of goals for IGSW involvement, and interviews with clients and caregivers and other key informants.
During the study period, 632 clients were served. Rates of goal achievement ranged from 25%–87% and in cases where achieved, the extent of IGSW involvement mostly exceeded recommendations. IGSWs were credited with improving adherence with treatment recommendations, increasing awareness and use of community services, and improving self-management, which potentially reduced ED visits and hospitalizations and delayed institutionalization.
The IGSW role has the potential to improve supports for seniors and facilitate more appropriate use of health system resources, and represents a promising mechanism for improving the integration and coordination of care across health sectors.
The government's cocoa spraying gangs in Ghana treat about two million hectares of the crop against black pod disease and mirids, the key insect pests of cocoa in West Africa, each August through to December, based on recommendations issued in the 1950s. A few cocoa farmers use additional pesticides. We studied the temporal distribution of two important mirid species, Distantiella theobroma (Dist.) and Sahlbergella singularis Hagl., in 1991, 1999, 2003 and 2012 to determine the appropriate timing for the application of control measures in current farming systems. There was a significant correlation between mirid abundance and pod availability on trees, as well as the number of basal shoots and the cocoa variety grown. Mirid populations peaked between January and April and from September to October. Surveys (interviews and focus group discussions involving over 300 farmers in 33 cocoa-growing districts) on pesticide use, sources of recommendations, and perceived successes and failures of current cocoa pest treatments suggested that the 1950 recommendations on the timing of insecticide application need revising.
Differences in patient adherence to various disease-modifying drugs (DMDs) in the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) are not well understood. The goal of this study was to evaluate adherence of adult MS patients in Ontario with public drug plan coverage to various DMDs: intramuscular interferon beta-1a (i.m. IFNβ-1a, Avonex), subcutaneous interferon beta-1a (s.c. IFNβ-1a, Rebif), subcutaneous interferon beta-1b (IFNβ-1b, Betaseron) or glatiramer acetate (Copaxone).
In this retrospective cohort study, Ontario Public Drug Plan beneficiaries aged 15 or older who were newly treated with i.m. IFNβ-1a, s.c. IFNβ-1a, IFNβ-1b or glatiramer acetate between April 2006 and March 2008 were followed forward until treatment discontinuation, switch to another DMD or a maximum two year follow-up period. Cumulative persistence rates were analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. The proportion of patients reaching the study endpoints after the two year follow-up period was also calculated.
Cumulative persistence rates for all four DMDs were similar over time (p=0.80), ranging from 73.6-79.1% at six months, 59.1-63.1% at one year and 41.5-47.4% at two years. After two years, the proportion of patients who had discontinued treatment, switched to another DMD or died was similar among DMDs (p=0.79, Fisher's exact test). Switching between DMD types was low and occurred in 3.4-6.5% of new DMD users.
Adherence to DMDs in adult MS patients in Ontario is poor, which is consistent with previously reported adherence rates to MS DMDs in other regions. No significant differences in adherence exist between the DMDs evaluated in this study.
Sexual health in Northern Ireland (NI) is poor compared with the rest of Europe with increasing incidences of sexually transmitted infections and one of the highest rates of teenage pregnancy. Traditionally, sexual health services have been provided in a fragmented way by a wide range of different providers but recent sexual health strategies have flagged sexual health as a key activity within the primary care setting.
The main aim of the study was to assess the sexual health promotion activities within the primary care setting across one Health and Social Services Board in NI.
A series of semi-structured interviews with both general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses (PNs) was conducted to assess their views on the key issues in relation to sexual health in primary care. A questionnaire survey was also conducted with these health professionals to elicit information about sexual health promotion activities within the primary care setting.
The results have shown that promoting sexual health within the primary care setting is often ad hoc and often does not target the ‘at-risk’ population. As such, GPs and PNs tend not to discuss sexual health with non-heterosexual clients or those with learning disabilities due to lack of awareness and training. Health professionals feel inadequately trained to engage in effective sexual health promotion and to provide enhanced sexual health services. Personal embarrassment and lack of time were also identified as barriers for providing effective sexual health care.
Health professionals within the primary care setting require additional training to deal with the sensitive and complex issues inherent in the area of sexual health.
PFGE was performed on residents' first clinical MRSA isolate (n = 94) during 8 years. Sixty-one percent of the isolates were clustered in time (P < .05) and space (P < .05) (ie, 2 separate statistically significant tests). Isolates from individual units were genetically related, with only the occasional unrelated isolate.
Twin registers have been established worldwide to study the roles of genes and the environment in health and behaviour. While questionnaire surveys are thought to be the most cost-effective way of collecting large amounts of data, low response rates can result in response bias. Many different strategies have been proposed to maximise response rates. A register of all multiple births occurring in Western Australia (WA) from 1980 onwards has been established using probabilistic record linkage techniques. Families who had not experienced the death of one or more of their multiples were invited to participate in the Western Australian Twin Child Health (WATCH) study, which studied the genetic and environmental determinants of childhood asthma and atopy. Several questionnaire designs and follow-up methods were assessed. We have shown that it was feasible to use a population-based register of multiple births to contact families for a questionnaire study. Questionnaire length, mode of follow-up, the number of responses required and the of participants all seemed to affect response.
The weed sicklepod, a problem in the cultivation of soybean, cotton, and peanut, can be controlled by the mycoherbicide, Alternaria cassiae. However, the presence of water (dew) for an extended period is required by the fungal spores to germinate and infect the target weed. Preliminary tests with invert (water-in-oil) emulsions containing paraffin wax, paraffin oil, lecithin, and water indicated that about 10% (w/w) water, maintained over an 18-h period, was necessary under laboratory conditions for significant germination of the fungus. The ability to maintain that amount of water in the invert emulsion depended upon spray deposit size, adjuvants, and oil phase: water ratio. Paraffin wax was an effective adjuvant for reducing water evaporation and increasing sicklepod mortality in the greenhouse.
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