Standing radial cross-waves in an annular wave tank are investigated using Whitham's average-Lagrangian method. For the simplest case, in which a single radial cross-wave is excited, energy is transferred from the wavemaker to the cross-wave through the spatial mean motion of the free surface, as described by Garrett (1970) for a purely transverse cross-wave in a rectangular tank. In addition, energy is transferred through spatial coupling since, in contrast to the purely transverse cross-wave in the rectangular tank, the (non-axisymmetric) radial cross-wave is three-dimensional. It is shown in an Appendix that this spatial coupling does occur for a three-dimensional cross-wave in a rectangular tank. The equations that govern this single-mode resonance are isomorphic to those that govern the Faraday resonance of surface waves in a basin of fluid subjected to vertical excitation (Miles 1984a).
It is found that the second-order Stokes-wave expansion for deep-water, standing gravity waves, which is regular for rectangular containers, may become singular for circular containers (Mack (1962) noted these resonances for finite-depth, standing gravity waves in circular containers). The evolution equations that govern two distinct types of resonant behaviour are derived: (i) 2:1 resonance between a radial cross-wave and a resonantly forces axisymmetric wave, corresponding to approximate equality among the driving frequency, a natural frequency of the directly forced wave, and twice the natural frequency of a cross-wave; (ii) 2:1 internal resonance between a radial cross-wave and a non-axisymmetric second harmonic, corresponding to approximate equality among the driving frequency, the natural frequency of a non-axisymmetric wave of even azimuthal wavenumber, and twice the natural frc.quency of the cross-wave. The axisymmetric, directly forced wave in (i) is resonantly excited and exchanges energy with the subharmonic cross-wave through spatial coupling, whereas the cross-wave in (ii) is parametrically excited and exchanges energy with the non-axisymmetric second harmonic through spatial coupling. The equations governing case (i) are shown to exhibit chaotic motions; those governing (ii) are shown to be isomorphic to the equations governing 2:1 internal resonance in the Faraday problem (Miles 1984a, §6), which have been shown to exhibit chaotic motions (Gu & Sethna 1987).
Preliminary experiments on standing radial cross-waves are reported in an Appendix, and theoretical predictions of mode stability are in qualitative agreement with these experiments. For the single-mode theory, the interaction coefficient that is a measure of the energy exchange between the wavemaker and the cross-wave is evaluated numerically for a particular wavemaker. The maximum interaction coefficient for a fixed azimuthal wavenumber of the cross-wave typically occurs for that radial mode number for which the turning point of the cross-wave radial profile is nearest the wavemaker. The present experiments for standing radial cross-waves are compared with those of Tatsuno, Inoue & Okabe (1969) for progressive radial cross-waves.