The proportion of older adults seeking rehabilitation services are certain to rise as the population ages. Cognitive rehabilitation techniques can be successfully adapted and used with older adults with a range of clinical diagnoses. An understanding of cognitive changes which could be expected as a result of “normal” (non-disease-related) aging is essential for both assessment and treatment planning for this group. Age-related changes in attention, memory and executive functioning are briefly noted. Common cognitive sequelae of head-injury, depression and dementia are discussed, and useful assessment and rehabilitation strategies described. Case illustrations are used to illustrate major points.