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In 2002, the Chicago Department of Public Health (CDPH; Chicago, Illinois) convened the Chicago-Area Neonatal MRSA Working Group (CANMWG) to discuss and compare approaches aimed at control of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). To better understand these issues on a regional level, the CDPH and the Evanston Department of Health and Human Services (EDHHS; Evanston, Illinois) began an investigation.
Survey to collect demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and epidemiologic data on individual cases and clusters of MRSA infection; an additional survey collected data on infection control practices.
Level III NICUs at Chicago-area hospitals.
Neonates and healthcare workers associated with the level III NICUs.
From June 2001 through September 2002, the participating hospitals reported all clusters of MRSA infection in their respective level III NICUs to the CDPH and the EDHHS.
Thirteen clusters of MRSA infection were detected in level III NICUs, and 149 MRSA-positive infants were reported. Infection control surveys showed that hospitals took different approaches for controlling MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
The CANMWG developed recommendations for the prevention and control of MRSA colonization and infection in the NICU and agreed that recommendations should expand to include future data generated by further studies. Continuing partnerships between hospital infection control personnel and public health professionals will be crucial in honing appropriate guidelines for effective approaches to the management and control of MRSA colonization and infection in NICUs.
To determine a potential source of MRSA colonization and infection among preterm infants in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) using molecular analysis of breast milk samples.
Case report, outbreak investigation.
Preterm triplets were delivered at 26 weeks' gestation via cesarean section when routine active surveillance for MRSA was performed for all infants in a NICU. Surveillance consisted of swabbing the throat, nose, and umbilicus (TNU) weekly. Although infants A and B initially had negative TNU swabs, repeat cultures were positive for MRSA on day of life (DOL) 10 and DOL 18, respectively. Surveillance and clinical cultures for infant C were negative. Infant A developed sepsis, and multiple blood cultures were positive for MRSA beginning on DOL 14. Infant B developed conjunctivitis and a conjunctival exudate culture was positive for MRSA on DOL 70. Both infants were fed breast milk via nasogastric tube. Cultures of breast milk samples for infants A and B dated prior to either infant's first positive surveillance culture were positive for MRSA. All MRSA isolates had identical results on antibiotic susceptibility testing. PFGE demonstrated identical banding patterns for the MRSA isolates from the blood culture of infant A, breast milk for infants A and B, and a surveillance swab from infant B. At no time did the mother develop evidence of mastitis or other local breast infection.
MRSA can be passed from mother to preterm infant through contaminated breast milk, even in the absence of maternal infection. Colonization and clinical disease can result.
To assess the effectiveness of a multi-faceted infection control strategy in limiting the nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection to patients in a bone marrow transplant (BMT) unit.
University-affiliated tertiary cancer center.
Adult BMT recipients hospitalized during two consecutive wintertime community outbreaks of RSV infection.
An infection control strategy against nosocomial RSV infection was implemented in the BMT unit in February 1993. The strategy involved prompt identification, isolation, and cohorting of RSV-infected patients; prompt therapy with aerosolized ribavirin; use of masks and gloves by anyone entering an infected BMT patient's room; screening visitors for respiratory symptoms; restricting visitation by all children under 12 years of age and all family members and other visitors with RSV symptoms; and restricting symptomatic hospital staff from working in the BMT unit.
After implementation of the multifaceted infection-control strategy, there were four cases of nosocomial RSV infection in 3,870 patient days (incidence density, 1.0 case/1,000 patient days) compared with 14 cases of nosocomial RSV infection in 3,152 patient days (incidence density, 4.4 cases/1,000 patient days) during the 1992-1993 RSV season (rate ratio, 4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI95], 1.4-17.9; P<.01). This decrease in incidence occurred despite a comparable prevalence of community-acquired RSV cases between the two seasons (2.2% vs 3.2% in 1992-1993 and 1993-1994, respectively; prevalence ratio, 0.7; CI95, 0.2-2.1; P=0.5)
Institution of a multifaceted infection control strategy significantly reduced the frequency of nosocomial RSV infection in a high-risk group of adult BMT recipients
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