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We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
The resolvent formulation of McKeon & Sharma (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 658, 2010, pp. 336–382) is applied to supersonic turbulent boundary layers to study the validity of Morkovin’s hypothesis, which postulates that high-speed turbulence structures in zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers remain largely the same as their incompressible counterparts. Supersonic zero-pressure-gradient turbulent boundary layers with adiabatic wall boundary conditions at Mach numbers ranging from 2 to 4 are considered. Resolvent analysis highlights two distinct regions of the supersonic turbulent boundary layer in the wave parameter space: the relatively supersonic region and the relatively subsonic region. In the relatively supersonic region, where the flow is supersonic relative to the free-stream, resolvent modes display structures consistent with Mach wave radiation that are absent in the incompressible regime. In the relatively subsonic region, we show that the low-rank approximation of the resolvent operator is an effective approximation of the full system and that the response modes predicted by the model exhibit universal and geometrically self-similar behaviour via a transformation given by the semi-local scaling. Moreover, with the semi-local scaling, we show that the resolvent modes follow the same scaling law as their incompressible counterparts in this region, which has implications for modelling and the prediction of turbulent high-speed wall-bounded flows. We also show that the thermodynamic variables exhibit similar mode shapes to the streamwise velocity modes, supporting the strong Reynolds analogy. Finally, we demonstrate that the principal resolvent modes can be used to capture the energy distribution between momentum and thermodynamic fluctuations.
Malnutrition remains a leading contributor to the morbidity and mortality of children under the age of 5 years and can weaken the immune system and increase the severity of concurrent infections. Livestock milk with the protective properties of human milk is a potential therapeutic to modulate intestinal microbiota and improve outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop an infection model of childhood malnutrition in the pig to investigate the clinical, intestinal and microbiota changes associated with malnutrition and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infection and to test the ability of goat milk and milk from genetically engineered goats expressing the antimicrobial human lysozyme (hLZ) milk to mitigate these effects. Pigs were weaned onto a protein–energy-restricted diet and after 3 weeks were supplemented daily with goat, hLZ or no milk for a further 2 weeks and then challenged with ETEC. The restricted diet enriched faecal microbiota in Proteobacteria as seen in stunted children. Before infection, hLZ milk supplementation improved barrier function and villous height to a greater extent than goat milk. Both goat and hLZ milk enriched for taxa (Ruminococcaceae) associated with weight gain. Post-ETEC infection, pigs supplemented with hLZ milk weighed more, had improved Z-scores, longer villi and showed more stable bacterial populations during ETEC challenge than both the goat and no milk groups. This model of childhood disease was developed to test the confounding effects of malnutrition and infection and demonstrated the potential use of hLZ goat milk to mitigate the impacts of malnutrition and infection.
The study examines the radicalisation experienced by one group of religious exiles in the middle of the sixteenth century. The English-speaking congregation in Geneva formed in 1555 produced a Bible, metrical psalter and order of worship that shaped the Anglophone Reformed tradition. Study of the congregation's output shows how watching the martyrdoms in England generated a dynamic anger and fresh interpretations of persecution, tyranny and resistance. Conveyed by the worship texts, this radical legacy passed into the identities of Reformed Protestants in the British Isles, the Atlantic world and subsequently across the globe.
A fossil plant of Eocene age from Antarctica was studied using X-ray and neutron tomography to reveal the three-dimensional plant structures encased within carbonate nodules. The fossil was identified as a branch and leaves of an araucarian conifer, which grew on the volcanic highlands of the Antarctic Peninsula region approximately 50 million yr ago. Both X-ray and neutron imaging techniques successfully exposed the full three-dimensional structure of the fossil without destroying the original specimen, revealing that most of the fossil was present as voids in the concretion and little organic matter was present. However, neutron tomography was found to produce images with superior quality and detail.
In her seminal book Lords and Men, Jenny Wormald achieved the important double that great historians accomplish. She both dealt superbly with a particular body of evidence and also revealed an entire world and guided the reader into it and around it. By opening up this new territory of lords, men and their bonds Jenny has given those who follow in her footsteps a chance to explore, to find exciting paths to travel and to discover new ways of examining familiar landmarks. Although the second achievement has probably overshadowed the first one, her classification and explanation of the actual bonds has received the accolade of being silently absorbed into the standard accounts and becoming part of the ‘givens’ for understanding Scotland during the late medieval and early modern period. These days the categories of bonds of maintenance, manrent, friendship and political and religious bonds can be found in historical discussions from school essay to specialist article. This exploration will start with Jenny's list of ‘religious bonds’ and chart how conventional bonds grew into a new type of bonding expressing a profound sense of religious allegiance and identity and flowing into the covenanting tradition.
As Jenny demonstrated, a bond of maintenance reflected the perspective of the ‘lord’, usually a noble overlord or feudal superior. It detailed how the lord viewed his relationship with his ‘man’ and in particular what he would be doing to ‘maintain’ his ‘servitor’. The Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue (DOST) defines ‘maintenance’ as:
backing, support, protection, granted by, or due from, one person to another, his dependants, possessions etc. … As by a lord to his man, one ally to another … Also band, letter(is) of maintenance, a formal contract of such backing or protection.
Bonds of maintenance were typically made up of four discrete sections. First, the preamble explained that it was the ‘bounden duty’ of the lord to help his man. Second came the promise to apply power and strength and ‘very lyves’ in support of the particular people who were named or identified. Third, the actual maintenance clause contained the promise to ‘mantene, nuryss and defende’. Finally, as befitted a legal document, came the subscription by the parties to the bond, along with witnesses, date and place.
The power of stories to persuade in infl uencing the process of change is the focus of this article. Attention is given to the importance of stories in making sense of past experience, of unifying groups, and in presenting options for future engagement and action. Unlike the narrative concern with sequencing, coherence and the need for a beginning, middle and end, it is argued that stories are often partial and ongoing, occur at multiple levels compete, complement and redefine positions. The plurality and political nature of stories are illustrated in an analysis of data drawn from a longitudinal study of six health care sites in remote and rural Scotland. The study concludes by arguing that stories are a powerful political vehicle in influencing sense-making and a critical component in maintaining choice and defl ecting the imposition of a single simple solution (hegemonic influence) over various interpretations of what are complex context-based issues.
Neuroimaging and behavioral studies have shown that children and
adults with autism have impaired face recognition. Individuals with autism
also exhibit atypical event-related brain potentials to faces,
characterized by a failure to show a negative component (N170) latency
advantage to face compared to nonface stimuli and a bilateral, rather than
right lateralized, pattern of N170 distribution. In this report,
performance by 143 parents of children with autism on standardized verbal,
visual–spatial, and face recognition tasks was examined. It was
found that parents of children with autism exhibited a significant
decrement in face recognition ability relative to their verbal and visual
spatial abilities. Event-related brain potentials to face and nonface
stimuli were examined in 21 parents of children with autism and 21 control
adults. Parents of children with autism showed an atypical event-related
potential response to faces, which mirrored the pattern shown by children
and adults with autism. These results raise the possibility that face
processing might be a functional trait marker of genetic susceptibility to
autism. Discussion focuses on hypotheses regarding the neurodevelopmental
and genetic basis of altered face processing in autism. A general model of
the normal emergence of social brain circuitry in the first year of life
is proposed, followed by a discussion of how the trajectory of normal
development of social brain circuitry, including cortical specialization
for face processing, is altered in individuals with autism. The hypothesis
that genetic-mediated dysfunction of the dopamine reward system,
especially its functioning in social contexts, might account for altered
face processing in individuals with autism and their relatives is
discussed.The writing of this paper and the
studies reported herein were funded by a grant from the National Institute
of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD Grant U19HD34565), which is
part of the NICHD Collaborative Program of Excellence in Autism, and a
center grant from the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH Grant
U54MH066399), which is part of the NIH STAART Centers