Trans-fatty acid intake is associated with an increased risk of CHD and diabetes. The effects of single trans-fatty acid isomers are largely unexplored. The present study examined the effects of a 6-week supplementation with two trans-18 : 1 isomers (trans-11 and trans-12) in human subjects on immune cells, several inflammatory and immunological biomarkers (for example, IL, TNFα, C-reactive protein, adiponectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, prostacyclin, phagocytic process). Following a 2-week adaptation period without supplements, the test group (n 12) received vaccenic acid (trans-11-18:1) and trans-12-18 : 1 in equal amounts (6·0 g/d) for 6 weeks. The control group (n 12) consumed an oil without trans-fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA). Samples were collected at the end of both periods. Trans-11- and trans-12-18 : 1 were significantly increased in cellular lipids. The endogenous synthesis of cis-9, trans-11-CLA from trans-11-18 : 1 was demonstrated via increased CLA in cellular lipids of the test group. Generally, trans-isomer supplementation did not affect either inflammatory biomarkers (for example, IL-6, IL-8, TNFα) or immune function (for example, phagocytosis) during the present study. The dietary supplementation of trans-11- and trans-12-18 : 1 (6 g/d) and their accumulation in leucocytes had no effects on biomarkers of inflammation and immune function. However, because of the limited data on the safety of trans-fatty acid intake and effects of individual trans isomers on human health (for example, trans-9-18 : 1, trans-10-18 : 1) at present, it is prudent to reduce trans-fat intake in general.