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To describe the cost of diarrhoeal illness in children aged 6–24 months in a rural South African community and to determine the threshold prevalence of stunting at which universal Zn plus vitamin A supplementation (VAZ) would be more cost-effective than vitamin A alone (VA) in preventing diarrhoea.
We conducted a cost analysis using primary and secondary data sources. Using simulations we examined incremental costs of VAZ relative to VA while varying stunting prevalence.
Data on efficacy and societal costs were largely from a South African trial. Secondary data were from local and international published sources.
The trial included children aged 6–24 months. The secondary data sources were a South African health economics survey and the WHO-CHOICE (CHOosing Interventions that are Cost Effective) database.
In the trial, stunted children supplemented with VAZ had 2·04 episodes (95 % CI 1·37, 3·05) of diarrhoea per child-year compared with 3·92 episodes (95 % CI 3·02, 5·09) in the VA arm. Average cost of illness was $Int 7·80 per episode (10th, 90th centile: $Int 0·28, $Int 15·63), assuming a minimum standard of care (oral rehydration and 14 d of therapeutic Zn). In simulation scenarios universal VAZ had low incremental costs or became cost-saving relative to VA when the prevalence of stunting was close to 20 %. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were sensitive to the cost of intervention and coverage levels.
This simulation suggests that universal VAZ would be cost-effective at current levels of stunting in parts of South Africa. This requires further validation under actual programmatic conditions.
In malnourished populations, the weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) distribution is shifted to the left. The aim of nutrition interventions should be to restore a normal WHZ distribution for the whole population. The present paper examines the WHZ change needed by each individual to achieve this objective.
We developed a mathematical model of required individual change in WHZ as a function of characteristics of the initial population to restore a normal distribution. This model was then tested by simulating WHZ change needed to restore a normal WHZ distribution in a test population.
A rural area of Democratic Republic of the Congo with a high prevalence of undernutrition.
Children under 5 years of age.
To restore a normal distribution for the whole population, the WHZ of all children should be shifted. The desired WHZ change of each individual should be higher when the individual's initial WHZ is low, when the mean WHZ of the whole population is low and, for the most wasted individual, when the variance of WHZ and WHZ change in the population are high. Using the suggested model in a simulation on the test population resulted in a WHZ distribution close to the growth standard.
To restore a normal WHZ distribution in wasted populations, nutritional programmes should cover the whole population with a higher weight gain in areas where mean WHZ is low.
To estimate the extent of under- and over-reporting, to examine associations with misreporting and sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics and mental health status and to identify differential reporting in micro- and macronutrient intake and quality of diet.
A health and lifestyle questionnaire and a semi-quantitative FFQ were completed as part of the 2007 Survey of Lifestyle, Attitudes and Nutrition. Energy intake (EI) and intake of micro- and macronutrients were determined by applying locally adapted conversion software. A dietary score was constructed to identify healthier diets. Accuracy of reported EI was estimated using the Goldberg method. ANOVA, χ2 tests and logistic regression were used to examine associations.
Residential households in Ireland.
A nationally representative sample of 7521 adults aged 18 years or older.
Overall, 33·2 % of participants were under-reporters while 11·9 % were over-reporters. After adjustment, there was an increased odds of under-reporting among obese men (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·46, 2·77) and women (OR = 1·68, 95 % CI 1·23, 2·30) compared to participants with a healthy BMI. Older age, low socio-economic status and overweight/obesity reduced the odds of over-reporting. Among under-reporters, the percentage of EI from fat was lower and overall diet was healthier compared to accurate and over-reporters. The reported usage of salt, fried food consumption and snacking varied significantly by levels of misreporting.
Patterns in differential reporting were evident across sociodemographic, lifestyle and mental health factors and diet quality. Consideration should be given to how misreporting affects nutrient analysis to ensure sound nutritional policy.
Overweight and obesity have increased to epidemic proportions among adolescents and are associated with chronic non-communicable diseases and excess mortality in adulthood. The association of overweight/obesity with poor dietary habits has not been studied in adolescents in middle-income developing countries. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and high waist circumference (WC) in 15–19-year-old Jamaican adolescents and to investigate the association with fast-food and sweetened beverage consumption.
The study enrolled 1317 (598 male, 719 female) adolescents aged 15–19 years using multistage, nationally representative sampling. Age-specific prevalence calculation used internal Z-score lines connecting with the WHO adult cut-off points. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of overweight or high WC with fast-food and sweetened beverage consumption, adjusting for potential confounders.
The overall prevalence of overweight, obesity and high WC was approximately 15 %, 6 % and 10 %, respectively. Prevalence estimated using internal Z-scores was similar to that using the International Obesity Taskforce cut-off points. Obesity (8·0 % in females, 3·3 % in males) and high WC (16·2 % in females, 1·7 % in males) were significantly more prevalent in females when using internal Z-score cut-offs. High WC was associated with the absence of fruit consumption (P = 0·043) and overweight with high sweetened beverage consumption (P = 0·018).
Overweight occurs frequently among Jamaican 15–19-year-olds and is associated with increased consumption of sweetened beverages. High WC is more prevalent among females and is related to low consumption of fruits and vegetables. Measures to reduce the consumption of sweetened beverages and increase fruit intake may reduce the prevalence of excess body fat among adolescents.
The present study aimed to compare two situations of endemic malnutrition among <5-year-old African children and to estimate the incidence, the duration and the case fatality of severe wasting episodes.
Secondary analysis of longitudinal studies, conducted several years ago, which allowed incidence and duration to be calculated from transition rates. The first site was Niakhar in Senegal, an area under demographic surveillance, where we followed a cohort of children in 1983–5. The second site was Bwamanda in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where we followed a cohort of children in 1989–92. Both studies enrolled about 5000 children, who were followed by routine visits and systematic anthropometric assessment, every 6 months in the first case and every 3 months in the second case.
Niakhar had less stunting, more wasting and higher death rates than Bwamanda. Differences in cause-specific mortality included more diarrhoeal diseases, more marasmus, but less malaria and severe anaemia in Niakhar. Severe wasting had a higher incidence, a higher prevalence and a more marked age profile in Niakhar. However, despite the differences, the estimated mean durations of episodes of severe wasting, calculated by multi-state life table, were similar in the two studies (7·5 months). Noteworthy were the differences in the prevalence and incidence of severe wasting depending on the anthropometric indicator (weight-for-height Z-score ≤–3.0 or mid upper-arm circumference <110 mm) and the reference system (National Center for Health Statistics 1977, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 or Multicentre Growth Reference Study 2006).
Severe wasting appeared as one of the leading cause of death among under-fives: it had a high incidence (about 2 % per child-semester), long duration of episodes and high case fatality rates (6 to 12 %).
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