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Evidence indicates that classical antipsychotics may aggravate non-malignant and malignant catatonia (MC). Atypical antipsychotics are less likely to cause movement disorders than classical antipsychotics and they are being frequently prescribed in disorders that can be associated with catatonia. Therefore, the important question that arises is whether atypical antipsychotics have a role to play in the treatment of catatonia.
Materials and methods
A Medline search was performed to locate papers on the use of atypical antipsychotics in catatonia published between 1970 and 31st December 2004.
The literature on the use of atypical antipsychotics in catatonia consists of case reports and retrospective studies. In most cases of non-MC a reduction of the catatonic symptoms is reported upon treatment with atypical antipsychotics. Cases of MC relate mainly to the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS), which is considered as an iatrogenic stuporous variant of MC caused by antipsychotics.
There are indications that atypical antipsychotics may be useful in non-MC. As a consequence, one should not only focus on the possible extrapyramidal and autonomic side effects of these drugs, but also on the possible beneficial effects on certain brain functions and on the catatonic symptomatology. However, randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the effect of these drugs, and caution is advisable, since cases of NMS have been linked to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. There is no evidence to prescribe atypical antipsychotics in MC.
Determine the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) contamination of food and colonization of food handlers in a hospital kitchen and compare retrieved ESBL-PE strains with patient isolates.
A 2,200-bed tertiary care university hospital in Switzerland.
Raw and prepared food samples were obtained from the hospital kitchen, with a comparator group from local supermarkets. Fecal samples collected from food handlers and selectively pre-enriched homogenized food samples were inoculated onto selective chromogenic media. Phenotypic confirmation of ESBL production was performed using the double disk method. Representative ESBL-PE were characterized using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing for blaCTX-M, blaSHV, and blaTEM genes, and Escherichia coli strains were typed using phylotyping, repetitive element palindromic PCR, and multilocus sequence typing. Meat samples were screened for antibiotic residues using liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Sixty (92%) of the raw chicken samples were ESBL-PE positive, including 30 (86%) of the hospital samples and all supermarket samples. No egg, beef, rabbit, or cooked chicken samples were ESBL-PE positive. No antibiotic residues were detected. Six (6.5%) of 93 food handlers were ESBL-PE carriers. ESBL-PE strains from chicken meat more commonly possessed blaCTX-M-1 and blaCTX-M-2, whereas blaCTX-M-14and blaCTX-M-15 were predominant among strains of human origin. There was partial overlap in the sequence type of E. coli strains of chicken and human origin. No E. coli ST131 strains or blaCTX-M-15 genes were isolated from meat.
Although there is significant ESBL-PE contamination of delivered chicken meat, current preventive strategies minimize risks to food handlers, hospital staff, and patients.
The objective of this study was to characterize the fatty acids (FA) in milk based on genetic and herd parameters to investigate the origin of the different FA in milk. Milk samples of 1912 Dutch Holstein-Friesian cows were analysed for 39 different FA including odd and branched-chain fatty acids. The proportion of variation caused by genetic and herd effects was calculated. In addition, genetic and herd correlations among the fatty acids were estimated and a clustering technique was used to visualise these correlations. The results indicated that in Dutch milk C12:0 is not completely synthesised de novo but also partly blood derived. It was suggested that C20:0 in milk is formed from the action of elongase enzymes on C18:0 and that the odd-chain FA C5:0–C13:0 and a part of C15:0 and C17:0 are synthesised de novo while the other part of C15:0 and C17:0 is blood derived. Furthermore, this work gives an overview of the opportunities to change the concentration of individual FA both by breeding and feeding. It is clearly shown that the extent to which the individual FA can be changed varies greatly and is dependent on the origin of the different FA in milk.
Los datos indican que los antipsicóticos clásicos pueden agravar la catatonía no maligna (CNM) y la catatonía maligna (CM). Los antipsicóticos atípicos tienen menos posibilidades de causar trastornos del movimiento que los antipsicóticos clásicos, y se prescriben con frecuencia en los trastornos que se pueden asociar con la catatonía. Por tanto, la pregunta importante que se plantea es si los antipsicóticos atípicos tienen un papel que desempeñar en el tratamiento de la catatonía.
Materiales y métodos
Se realizó una búsqueda en Medline para localizar artículos sobre el uso de antipsicóticos atípicos en la catatonia publicados entre 1970 y el 31 de diciembre de 2004.
Las publicaciones sobre el uso de antipsicóticos atipicos en la catatonía consisten en informes clínicos y estudios retrospectivos. En la mayoría de los casos de CNM se informa de una reducción de los síntomas catatónicos con el tratamiento con antipsicóticos atípicos. Los casos de CM se relacionan sobre todo con el síndrome neuroléptico maligno (SNM), que se considera como una variante estuporosa yatrógena de CM causada por los antipsicóticos.
Hay indicaciones de que los antipsicóticos atípicos pueden ser útiles en la CNM. Como consecuencia, deberíamos centramos no sólo en los posibles efectos secundarios extrapiramidales y neurovegetativos de estos farmacos, sino también en los posibles efectos beneficiosos en ciertas funciones cerebrales y en los síntomas catatónicos. Sin embargo, se necesitan ensayos controlados distribuidos al azar para evaluar el efecto de estos medicamentos, y la prudencia es aconsejable, ya que se ha asociado casos de SNM con el tratamiento con antipsicóticos atípicos. No hay datos para prescribir antipsicóticos atípicos en la CM.